Waveguide components

Apollo Microwaves accelerates component design with CST STUDIO SUITE

Apollo Microwaves accelerates component design with CST STUDIO SUITE Document type
Apollo Microwaves is a leading supplier of microwave communication components and sub-systems for the satellite and wireless communication industries. They design and manufacture both standard and custom-engineered components for frequencies ranging from 1 GHz to 60 GHz, which means that their product range needs to be very wide. Read full article..

Design und Bewertung einer Hohlleiter-Schlitzantenne (Slotted Waveguide Antenna,SWA) mit EM-Simulation

Design und Bewertung einer Hohlleiter-Schlitzantenne (Slotted Waveguide Antenna,SWA) mit EM-Simulation
SWAs sind für viele Radaranwendungen nützlich. Sie sind leicht, robust und bieten einen hohen Gewinn und eine sehr gute Richtcharakteristik. Dabei sind sie relativ einfach herzustellen. SWAs bestehen aus einem Hohlleiter, dessen Wand durch Schlitze unterbrochen ist. Read full article..

Modeling and Simulation of Metamaterial-Based Devices for Industrial Applications

Modeling and Simulation of Metamaterial-Based Devices for Industrial Applications
The subject of metamaterials has rapidly grown over the past few years from a hot topic of academic research to a field with interesting and novel industrial applications. The exotic properties of these metamaterials include negative or low values of permittivity, permeability and refractive index, allowing engineers to manipulate the material’s intrinsic parameters to control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Some recent industrial applications have seen metamaterial transmission lines being used in broadband filters, multiband components, dual-band tags for UHF-RFID and sensors. The metamaterial-based waveguide structures, such as composite right/left-handed (CRLH) structures, have led to interesting applications of waveguide miniaturization and novel coupler design. Metamaterial-inspired antenna design has produced reflex-cavity antennas with low-profile, high gain, beam steering and frequency agility. Read full article..

Non-Linear Simulation of a Photonic Amplifier

Non-Linear Simulation of a Photonic Amplifier
This article demonstrates the modeling of a third-order non-linear silicon-on-insulator waveguide at optical frequencies, using time-domain simulation in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The non-linearity gives rise to degenerate four-wave mixing, allowing the waveguide to be used as a photonic amplifier. Read full article..

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Document type
In this paper a modular approach using the so-called System Assembly and Modeling (SAM) of CST STUDIO SUITE® is used to optimize a reflector antenna system in a piecewise manner. The results are compared to a full system simulation. It is shown that a similar accuracy to that of the full system simulation can be attained with the modular approach with a much shorter simulation time and using less computational resources. Read full article..

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Webinar

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Webinar
The optimization of high gain reflector antennas presents a real challenge for conventional simulation tools. The range of geometric sizes and physical operating principles means that significant improvements in simulation time can be obtained by the clever combination of different numerical techniques. This webinar will describe how the new smart assembly mode simulation system in CST STUDIO SUITE 2011 enables the engineer to model complex reflector antenna and feed systems efficiently and accurately. Read full article..

Optimisation of a 10-Way Conical Power Combiner

Optimisation of a 10-Way Conical Power Combiner
This article describes the use of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® in simulating and optimising a 10-way conical transmission line power combiner operating at X-band (6-14 GHz). Simulated and measured results are compared. Read full article..

Simulation and Construction of Body Coil substitute at 7T Whole Body MRI-System with Travelling Wave Concept

Simulation and Construction of Body Coil substitute at 7T Whole Body MRI-System with Travelling Wave Concept Document type
Tim Herrmann, Johannes Mallow, OvG University Magdeburg Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most important non-invasive examination methods in the modern medicine. To raise up examine possibilities, MRI systems with more powerful magnetic fields are constituted. The standard high-field whole body (1.5T-3T) MRI Systems (Fig. 1) are using a body coil for the excitation. MRI at ultra-high-field (UHF) requires different Tx-coils for excitation of different body parts since the construction of one large body coil, similar to those at lower fields, is to difficult. Moreover, at 7T B1 is inhomogeneous as the RF-wave length within the object is smaller than the object extensions. While in RF-coils the usable B1-field is restricted to dimensions and geometry of the RF-coil itself, with the new travelling wave concept, described by Brunner [1], the usable B1-field is restricted to the dimensions of the waveguide (RF-shield) only. Thus the MR travelling wave concept allows excitation of large volumes depending on the length of the RF-shield. For an antenna with a frequency of 297MHz the approximate wavelength is about 1m. Thus the RF-shield of the gradient coil with a diameter of 64cm can be used as a waveguide, because of the cut-off frequency. The cut-off frequency is the minimum frequency where a wave fits into the waveguide without damping. This study examines the use of the travelling wave concept as an efficient body coil replacement in UHF MRI-System with the support simulations in CST Microwave Studio 2009 and measurements. Therefore two different types of antennas have been simulated and produced. The B1-field distribution of a dipole and a patch antenna where simulated and compared with B1-field measurements in a 7T MRI System. The efficiency compared to a 1.5T body coil was investigated. Further research goals are to create biological models based on anatomical MRI-Dataset for use in field-simulation software with dynamic thermal solver for more realistic SAR calculation. However the remaining problems of exposing sensitive body parts, such as the human head by increased SAR needs to be solved for next generation UHF MRI-Systems. Read full article..

Characterization of Photonic Structures with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO

Characterization of Photonic Structures with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Document type
Stefan Prorok, Hamburg University of Technology We present an overview of our current research activities in silicon photonics and thermal barrier coatings. Doing so, we will comment on how CST Microwave Studio can be used to design strip waveguides, micro ring resonators, as well as 2-D and 3-D photonic crystal structures. Particularly we will concentrate on the discussion of photonic crystal micro cavities which can be used as electro-optic modulators. It will be shown that MWS provides all the functionality to optimize and characterize optical micro cavities. The appearance of resonant modes is adjusted through eigenmode calculation of the photonic crystal waveguide modes. Time domain simulation with discrete port excitation is applied to calculate the intrinsic Q-factor of the cavity. Waveguide ports are used to model experimental conditions of excitation with strip waveguide modes. Field monitors help to understand the mechanism of energy loss from the cavity. The simulation results are compared to measurements on fabricated structures. As possible application we will show a hybrid silicon organic hetero structure cavity for GHz electro-optic modulation. Read full article..

X-Band Squintless Horn Antenna Array (96 elements)

X-Band Squintless Horn Antenna Array (96 elements)
This article concerns the design of a X-Band squintless horn antenna array consisting out of 96 radiating elements. The full design of the 2.4m antenna blank (including the simultaneous excitation of all 96 arms) has been performed within CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The simulated results have been in an excellent agreement with compact range measurements. Read full article..

Advanced Modelling and Measurement of Wideband Horn Antennas

Advanced Modelling and Measurement of Wideband Horn Antennas
This paper presents the excellent correlation of measurement results to the numerical calculations of a SATIMO dual-ridge horn antenna which include the directivity, boresight gain, and return loss vs. frequency. The structure is electrically large which lends itself, as a result of its efficient memory utilisation, to the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) Time Domain Solver. Broadband, high resolution gain results can be obtained within a single run with as many as 100 farfield monitors being defined. The results are presented with the courtesy and permission of SATIMO, Italy. Read full article..

The use of CST Microwave Studio in the Design of an X-Band Circularly Polarised Splashplate Antenna

The use of CST Microwave Studio in the Design of an X-Band Circularly Polarised Splashplate Antenna Document type
Richard Roberts, Astrium Ltd This presentation describes how CST Microwave Studio (MWS) has been used in conjunction with POS 5 and GRASP 8 to design an X-Band circularly polarised Splashplate Antenna. The antenna essentially consists of a centre fed reflector (17 wavelengths in diameter), the Splashplate feed (~2 wavelengths in diameter), and a septum polariser to allow the Tx and Rx bands to operate in opposite polarisations. A significant factor in the design is that a short circuit had to be assumed at the other port of the septum polariser meaning that the return loss of the Splashplate feed and the reflector were critical to the axial ratio performance. CST MWS enabled this aspect of the design to be modelled and analysed using the T-solver. Comparison of the measured and predicted antenna performance has validated the design process. Although a compliant performance has been achieved, it is evident that some modelling improvements could be sought in order to get a better convergence between prediction and measurement. Read full article..

Microfabricated Folded Waveguide for Broadband Traveling Wave Tube Application

Microfabricated Folded Waveguide for Broadband Traveling Wave Tube Application
Microfabrication becomes also in the vacuum tube community more and more popular. The reason is the need for miniaturization when going to higher frequencies. Circuits created by conventional fabrication techniques are not robust enough. Therefore a microfabricated folded waveguide for 220GHz has been designed and analysed by means of 3D simulation using the Particle in Cell (PIC) solver of CST PARTICLE STUDIO®. Read full article..

Meta-Modeling with OptiY® Design Space Visualization for Electromagnetic Applications in CST Studio Suite®

Meta-Modeling with OptiY® Design Space Visualization for Electromagnetic Applications in CST Studio Suite® Document type
The-Quan Pham, OptiY e.K. Meta-modeling is a process to win the mathematical relationship between design parameters and product characteristics. For each point in the parameter space, there is a corresponding point of the design space. Many model calculations should be performed to show the relationship between outputs and inputs systematically. For a high computing effort of the product model, it is practically infeasible. Adaptive response surface methodology can be used to solve this problem. The mathematical relationship between design parameters and product characteristics presents a new dimension of the simulation results and called meta-model. Based on this meta-model, a virtual optimization or test of the virtual design can be performed very fast to evaluate and to improve the design under real conditions. The meta-model can be exported into C-, Modelica-, or Matlab-code for further using as surrogate model in system simulation as Matlab/Simulink, circuit-simulators. We apply this on a hybrid waveguide junction in CST Studio Suite. Design parameters are geometrical dimensions of the junction. The reflection and transmission at the operating point 8GHz are defined as design goals. Read full article..

Ferrite-loaded waveguide antenna

Ferrite-loaded waveguide antenna
The behaviour of a ferrite loaded waveguide antenna is predicted first by a 2D-analytical model and second by CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The results of the predictions are compared with measurements. (Courtesy and permission of KAIST Korea.) Read full article..

Bandpass Waveguide Filter with Dual Mode Cavities

Bandpass Waveguide Filter with Dual Mode Cavities
This waveguide filter has been simulated with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® general purpose frequency domain solver applying a tetrahedral mesh. Read full article..

A Unit Cell Model of a Single Periodic Waveguide Phased-Array Antenna

A Unit Cell Model of a Single Periodic Waveguide Phased-Array Antenna
In this article a single periodic open-ended waveguide phased-array antenna with a dielectric radome at its aperture of variable thickness is analysed. As a verification it is shown that the superposition of two independent plane waves shows the same field pattern as the one created by the unit cell model. Read full article..

Periodic Eigenmode Simulation of a Travelling Wave Tube

Periodic Eigenmode Simulation of a Travelling Wave Tube
CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® enables the simulation of periodic eigenmode problems such as Travelling Wave Tubes(TWT). The group velocity and phase dispersion characteristics can be extracted as well as the Pierce Impedance. Read full article..

Conductor Backed Coplanar Wave Guide

Conductor Backed Coplanar Wave Guide
This example shows the simulation of a conductor backed coplanar waveguide with a ground via fence for reducing EMI radiation. The excellent agreement between simulation and simulated results can be observed. Read full article..

Terahertz broadband metal-dielectric near-field antenna

Terahertz broadband metal-dielectric near-field antenna
The article presents an antenna-based approach to near-field imaging and spectroscopy, which can be used for both continuous-wave and pulsed broadband electromagnetic radiation from microwave to terahertz frequencies. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) was used to perform the simulations. Read full article..

Microwave Plasma Sources

Microwave Plasma Sources
Optimisation of Microwave Plasma Sources with the transient, frequency domain and eigenmode solvers of MAFIA. Read full article..

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