Journal Publications

July 2016

Designing Building Structures for Protection against EMP and Lightning
Designing Building Structures for Protection against EMP and Lightning

This article will explore the use of electromagnetic simulation when hardening facilities against EMP and lightning. EMP is a high-intensity burst of electromagnetic energy that can potentially cause major disruption to vital infrastructure such as telecommunications, electrical power, banking and finance, emergency services, medical facilities, transportation, food and water supply. Lightning can cause significant damage by directly striking a building, when metallic structures such as electrical wiring provide return current flow in an attempt to equalize potentials. It is therefore essential to protect or “harden” critical facilities by stringent electromagnetic design, including shielding to block incident EMP fields, careful treatment of points of entry (POE) and diversion of lightning currents using down-conductors. This article shows how a simulation of the performance of EMP protection measures at the point of entry, such as filtering and clamping, can be set up and carried out. The simulation of a lightning strike to a building structure is also demonstrated, to show how the induced current return paths can be visualized in order to characterize the possible effect of the lightning strike on systems inside the building. This includes an investigation of cable system positioning inside the building and the prediction of induced shield and internal load currents and the analysis of lightning protection system (LPS), taking into account the effect of down-conductor type and grounding impedance.

Visit the website here.

May 2016

Supporting Future Aircraft Certifications with EM Simulations
Supporting Future Aircraft Certifications with EM Simulations

Electromagnetic environments as, for instance, high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) and lightning can degenerate aircraft safe operation and even cause catastrophic effects without any precautions taken. The trend toward all-electric aircraft increases the number of aircraft functions performed by avionics. The risk of failure is even higher for modern aircraft with structures made of carbon-fiber composites (CFC).

Visit the website here.

February 2016

Accuracy in Simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE 2016
Accuracy in Simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE 2016

CST® STUDIO SUITE® is an electromagnetic simulation tool used to design, analyze and optimize devices and systems at all stages of the development process. It is used in industries as diverse as electronics, automotive, aerospace, medical and energy, and covers the electromagnetic spectrum from statics to optics. By replacing physical prototypes with virtual ones, engineers can study how their products work at the earliest stages of design and reduce the number of physical models that need to be constructed. For virtual prototyping to be a viable option, the simulation tools need to be accurate without sacrificing performance. For this reason, the release of CST STUDIO SUITE 2016 builds on the success of previous versions with a range of new features that make the analysis of systems more powerful while building on CST’s reputation for accuracy.

Read the article here ( size: 1557 kB).

Visit the website here.

April 2015

"Leaky" Cables Make Fine Broadband Antennas
"Leaky" Cables Make Fine Broadband Antennas

A cable that leaks electromagnetic energy sounds like a defective cable. Yet, ironically, it makes an excellent broadband antenna. To avoid confusion, antennas based on this approach are called leaky feeders. They are typically used in environments that mirror the cylindrical shape and length of the cable: tunnels, mines, aircraft, railroad tracks and skyscrapers. CST provides a tutorial explaining the basic theory and electromagnetic performance. Turning theory into practice, with assistance from W. L. Gore, we examine their use enabling Wi-Fi and cellular service on commercial airlines and corporate jets.

Read the article here ( size: 5592 kB).

Visit the website here.

February 2015

Synthesis and Simulation Converge in CST STUDIO SUITE 2015
Synthesis and Simulation Converge in CST STUDIO SUITE 2015

Simulation helps engineers analyze and optimize products, while synthesis software helps them select and create designs. Alone, these are powerful tools for the development of any electromagnetic device. Combined, they complement and strengthen each other. With the release of the CST STUDIO SUITE® 2015, synthesis, design and optimization are now more tightly integrated into the simulation workflow.

Read the article here ( size: 5387 kB).

Visit the website here.

December 2014

EMC Simulation in the Design Flow of Modern Electronics
EMC Simulation in the Design Flow of Modern Electronics

EMC compliance is a necessary condition for releasing products to market. National and international standards bodies such as the IEC2 and the FCC3 define limits on the emissions a device is allowed to produce, and automotive and aerospace manufacturers can set even stricter standards for their OEM suppliers. If these standards are not met, the product cannot be sold.

Read the article here ( size: 5862 kB).

Visit the website here.

October 2014

Design und Bewertung einer Hohlleiter-Schlitzantenne (Slotted Waveguide Antenna,SWA) mit EM-Simulation
Design und Bewertung einer Hohlleiter-Schlitzantenne (Slotted Waveguide Antenna,SWA) mit EM-Simulation

SWAs sind für viele Radaranwendungen nützlich. Sie sind leicht, robust und bieten einen hohen Gewinn und eine sehr gute Richtcharakteristik. Dabei sind sie relativ einfach herzustellen. SWAs bestehen aus einem Hohlleiter, dessen Wand durch Schlitze unterbrochen ist.

Visit the website here.

October 2014

Electromagnetic Simulation Applied to Automotive EMC Testing
Electromagnetic Simulation Applied to Automotive EMC Testing

Nearly every product that has some sort of electronic circuitry must be subjected to EMC testing prior to its commercialization. In the automotive industry, the large number of electronic modules, sensors, and cable harnesses, many in safety-critical systems, in modern vehicles demands strict standards for reliability and security under challenging conditions. Vehicles must comply with standards such as CISPR-25 and ISO 11451, and individual regulations from the automakers which, very often, are even more stringent.

Visit the website here.

September 2014

Electromagnetic simulation in the design process
Electromagnetic simulation in the design process

Electromagnetic simulation is becoming an increasingly vital part of the automotive design process as vehicle electronics become more complex and development cycles shorten. Many new technologies such as automotive radar, intervehicle communication systems and on-board computers are developed using simulation from the beginning of the design process. Tasks that were traditionally done by experimentation, such as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) analysis, antenna placement and cable harness layout, can be made more efficient by using simulation to create “virtual prototypes”.

Visit the website here.

May 2014

Modeling Metamaterials - Metamaterial Development using Electromagnetic Simulation
Modeling Metamaterials - Metamaterial Development using Electromagnetic Simulation

Metamaterials are a subject of great interest for both academia and industry, offering the ability to produce electromagnetic phenomena that are not seen in natural materials. These offer potential for new technologies and for existing devices to be made smaller, faster and more efficient. When developing a new metamaterial, simulations can be used both to analyze the bulk effects of the material and to design the individual unit cell.

Visit the website here.

April 2014

Antenna Magus Version 5: Synthesis to Meet Specification
Antenna Magus Version 5: Synthesis to Meet Specification

From satellites to motor vehicles; from mobile telephones to radio-telescopes – a vast array of different antenna types are used in almost every modern industry and application. Engineers and system designers are regularly faced with the task of improving and adjusting these antennas or identifying, designing and evaluating new antenna options to meet changing system requirements.

Visit the website here.

February 2014

CST STUDIO SUITE 2014: EM Simulation for Integrated Design
CST STUDIO SUITE 2014: EM Simulation for Integrated Design

Different components require different simulation methods – this much has been known since the earliest days of EM simulation. For the last decade, CST has been addressing this problem by combining multiple simulation tools into a single product, CST STUDIO SUITE®, with a single user interface for all solvers. In addition, most practical systems are made up of multiple components, each best suited to a different solver technology.

Read the article here ( size: 589 kB).

Visit the website here.

January 2014

Utilizzo di simulatori numerici per la soluzione di problemi di compatibilità elettromagnetica
Utilizzo di simulatori numerici per la soluzione di problemi di compatibilità elettromagnetica

Approfondire il metodo di prova con l’ausilio di adeguati strumenti di calcolo ci agevola già in fase di progettazione e ci accompagna sino ai test finali per ricercare i meccanismi di interferenza e quantificare le regole di progetto Il Perito Industriale 6/2013

Read the article here ( size: 1379 kB).

Visit the website here.

January 2014

Resolving Safety-Critical EMI Problems Between AM Transmitters and Cranes Using a 3D Field Solver
Resolving Safety-Critical EMI Problems Between AM Transmitters and Cranes Using a 3D Field Solver

Electromagnetic fields from two high-power AM transmitters close to a construction site induced dangerously high voltages in crane booms, damaging equipment and injuring workers. With construction halted, a solution was urgently required. Electromagnetic simulation was used to identify the cause of the problem when conventional on-site analysis approaches failed, and allowed the engineers to compare possible ountermeasures quickly. The chosen solution, a large inductive coupling to the ground, was successfully implemented and construction was able to continue.

Visit the website here.

December 2013

Reconfigurable Antenna Simulation
Reconfigurable Antenna Simulation

Reconfigurable antennas have been an active topic of research for a number of years now. But this up-and-coming field is now becoming increasingly interesting for industry because of the requirement for antennas to provide additional functionality and to have increasingly flexible properties, all while occupying the same or smaller physical volumes than before.

Visit the website here.

November 2013

Advanced electromagnetic simulation
Advanced electromagnetic simulation

Accurate electromagnetic simulation is enabling devices and components, including coils and permanent magnets, to be designed, modeled and fully optimized.

Visit the website here.

July 2013

Slotted Waveguide Antenna Design Using 3D EM Simulation
Slotted Waveguide Antenna Design Using 3D EM Simulation

Slotted waveguide antennas (SWA) are often employed in radar applications where design specifications commonly require high gains and mechanical robustness. Since the peak power transmitted by radar antennas is usually very high, waveguide antennas present a practical alternative to planar arrays. While numerous design references and guidelines exist for planar arrays, there are far fewer for slotted waveguide antennas. This article presents a comprehensive workflow for the analysis and design of a slotted waveguide antenna with slots placed on the narrow wall of the waveguide. The virtual design is modeled and simulated using two different numerical methods and different mesh types. This simulation is compared to the analytical solution for array antennas and to the performance of a physical prototype. July 2013

Read the article here ( size: 657 kB).

Visit the website here.

July 2013

Designing MRI Coils With Aid Of Simulation
Designing MRI Coils With Aid Of Simulation

With electromagnetic and thermal simulation, RF coils can be designed to produce safe, homogenous fields even in the complex environment of the human body. July 2013

Visit the website here.

July 2013

EMC Simulation of Consumer Electronic Devices
EMC Simulation of Consumer Electronic Devices

By including EMC compliant design at an early stage, additional costly design iterations can be avoided later on down the line. This article describes a workflow for the EMC simulation of a wireless router, using techniques that can be applied to a wide range of consumer electronic devices. July 2013

Visit the website here.

June 2013

Comprehensive EMC simulation overcomes ECU validation challenges

This product how-to describes how to use Synopsys' Saber platform for modeling and simulating physical systems and CST Studio Suite electromagnetic simulation software. Synopsys and CST recently launched a technology partnership to build a high-quality interface between Saber and CST Studio Suite. This article originally appeared in Elektronik automotive 12/2012, WEKA FACHMEDIEN GmbH.

Visit the website here.

March 2013

CST STUDIO SUITE 2013: Performance, Usability and Versatility
CST STUDIO SUITE 2013: Performance, Usability and Versatility

Feature range and user experience are sometimes seen as mutually exclusive. The ever-increasing complexity of de-sign tasks means that engineers need a broad range of powerful simulation tools and features at their disposal, but only a few of these will be helpful in any one situation. Knowing which feature to use and when to use it can be a skill in its own right. March 2013

Read the article here ( size: 2313 kB).

Visit the website here.

March 2013

Simulating Crosstalk and EMI in Cables
Simulating Crosstalk and EMI in Cables

Cables not only transfer the power needed to run electrical equipment, but also the data signals needed to operate them. To prevent errors and device failures, the same attention must be paid to the choice and installation of the cabling as is paid to the rest of the system. March 2013

Read the article here ( size: 3128 kB).

Visit the website here.

February 2013

Analyze Automotive PCB Layouts Efficiently with Simulation
Analyze Automotive PCB Layouts Efficiently with Simulation

Integrating electronic systems safely into a vehicle poses significant challenges that can be lessened with the help of rule-checking and EM simulation software to reduce the number of design iterations required, by pointing out SI, PI and EMC problems before development proceeds to the testing stage. February 2013

Read the article here ( size: 339 kB).

Visit the website here.

December 2012

Integrierte Systemlösung zur EMV-Simulation in der Steuergeräteentwicklung
Integrierte Systemlösung zur EMV-Simulation in der Steuergeräteentwicklung

Die steigende Elektrifizierung automobiler Plattformen stellt Entwicklungsabteilungen bei der EMV-Validierung vor zunehmend größere Herausforderungen. Um diese wichtige Aufgabe termin- und qualitätsgerecht zu adressieren, nutzen Entwickler simulationsbasierter Methoden unterschiedliche Ansätze. Um die Vorteile eines simulationsbasierten Entwicklungsprozesses noch weiter auszubauen und systemisch anzuwenden, ist es vorteilhaft, unterschiedliche Methodenansätze zu verbinden. Die Software-Unternehmen Synopsys und CST starteten kürzlich eine gemeinsame Technologiepartnerschaft, um eine Integration zwischen den Tools Saber und der CST STUDIO SUITE® zu entwickeln, die maßgeblich von der Firma Bosch vorangetrieben wurde. December 2012

Visit the website here.

February 2012

Proper Stack-Up in a Multilayer PCB to Reduce Noise Coupling and Improve EMI
Proper Stack-Up in a Multilayer PCB to Reduce Noise Coupling and Improve EMI

As digital circuits became faster, direct coupling among power planes in multilayer printed circuit boards (PCB) became a major concern for signal integrity/power integrity and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Fast signals produce electromagnetic waves that can propagate by means of the parallel plates in the PCB, induce noise on the signals passing through the power bus (vias) and radiate from the edge of the board. The present study focuses on the analysis of the noise that propagates from a power plane to another power plane due to their proximity. To mitigate this problem, proper design of both power and ground planes in the stack-up is illustrated. A test board is fabricated and measurements are performed in order to validate the numerical electromagnetic model. Reprinted with permission of MICROWAVE JOURNAL® from the February 2012 ©2012 Horizon House Publications, Inc. February 2012

Read the article here ( size: 2873 kB).

Visit the website here.

December 2011

CST STUDIO SUITE 2012: System Assembly and Modeling
CST STUDIO SUITE 2012: System Assembly and Modeling

The key challenge facing RF engineers today is to minimize the time taken for the design and optimization of components, but the ability to do so is impeded by the need to use different EM simulation tools for different aspects of the design. By embedding state-of-the-art solvers based on different numerical techniques, such as Finite Integration Technique (FIT), Finite Element Method (FEM) or Method of Moments (MoM), in one single user interface, CST has provided engineers with a universal toolbox to choose from. However, although the optimization of individual components in isolation is important, it might not be enough. The systems’ performance might be affected by the interdependence of components and an optimization of the entire system may, therefore, be required. Reprinted with permission of MICROWAVE JOURNAL® from the December 2011 ©2011 Horizon House Publications, Inc. December 2011

Read the article here ( size: 757 kB).

Visit the website here.

July 2011

3D EMC/EMI Simulation of Automotive Multimedia Systems
3D EMC/EMI Simulation of Automotive Multimedia Systems

A key challenge in automotive product design is the compliance to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) requirements in a cost-driven project environment. Traditionally, EMC and EMI issues are solved in the EMC lab, often without getting a full understanding of the underlying effects. The adoption of 3D field simulation provides an insight into the root causes of electromagnetic resonance effects occurring in the product, enabling fast design cycles and high product quality. Reprinted with permission of MICROWAVE JOURNAL® from the July 2011 ©2011 Horizon House Publications, Inc. July 2011

Read the article here ( size: 1225 kB).

Visit the website here.

December 2010

Integrating Simulation Technology
Integrating Simulation Technology

There is an increasing demand for evaluating a component’s performance in the system environment. The performance of an antenna depends on the platform it is in-stalled on, for example, and the antenna itself might be a system built from various RF components. The importance of the EM system simulation approach becomes obvious when considering the electromagnetic compatibility of a device. The overall performance depends on the interaction of all the components, such as PCBs, cables and housings. Reprinted with permission of MICROWAVE JOURNAL® from the December 2010 ©2010 Horizon House Publications, Inc. December 2010

Read the article here ( size: 1071 kB).

Visit the website here.

April 2010

It’s About Time
It’s About Time

The great variety of devices in need of electromagnetic simulation has led, over the years, to the development of an almost as great variety of solutions. For each device, there is probably one method that provides the quickest, most accurate results. The goal of this paper is to discuss applications for which time domain simulations are not only well suited, but perhaps even the only successfully applicable approach. This article is copyright of IEEE. April 2010

Visit the website here.

November 2009

Design Software Tool with Complete Technology
Design Software Tool with Complete Technology

Design Software Tool with Complete Technology Some years ago CST introduced a frequency domain solver into CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) in addition to its time domain solver. The company recognized that an ever increasing array of microwave/RF and high speed data applications required alternate solver technology in order to optimize speed and memory usage. While such technology was available from various vendors, CST’s approach placed the solvers within the same user friendly front-end that many engineers were already familiar with. The company has continually expanded the range of technology available and increased the vast number of RF, microwave and high speed applications that can be solved quickly and accurately... Reprinted with permission of MICROWAVE JOURNAL® from the November 2009 ©2009 Horizon House Publications, Inc. November 2009

Read the article here ( size: 1149 kB).

Visit the website here.

June 2009

Antenna design considerations
Antenna design considerations

With the advent of prolific wireless communications applications, system designers are in a position to consider the placement and performace of an antenna system. The first step in establishing antenna requirements is to determine the desired communication range and terminal characteristics of the radio system (i.e., transmit power, minimum receiver senitivity level). Given those parameters, one can ascertain the amount gain or loss required to maintain the communication range by using the Friis Transmission formula. June 2009

Visit the website here.

May 2009

High speed hard disk suspension: electric design and model validation
High speed hard disk suspension: electric design and model validation

In a hard disk drive for magnetic data storage, successful design of the front-end R/W channel is vital for achieving high density storage. Such a design involves both high track densities with resultant smaller signals and higher linear densities with signals occupying wider frequency bands. Current technical literature offers few works describing the design process, and there is no consensus as to choosing either time-domain characterization or the frequency-domain (S-parameters) modeling approach. May 2009

Read the article here ( size: 1935 kB).

Visit the website here.

December 2008

Ensuring Antennas Perform Correctly in Their Environment
Ensuring Antennas Perform Correctly in Their Environment

Electromagnetic field simulators are routinely used to design antenna structures and achieve the desired performance,including radiation pattern directivity and gain, polarization, standing wave ratio (SWR), and other pertinent parameters. However, there are many cases where the antenna is strongly affected by its surrounding environment and failure to take this into consideration can lead to poor installed performance. Nulls can be introduced in the radiation pattern leading to drops in communication range in certain directions. Reflections from nearby objects may couple back into the antenna increasing the SWR to intolerable levels. The antenna may also receive strong signals from neighboring transmitters causing interference and reducing operability. In severe cases, it may be necessary to silence one radio system to enable another to function correctly. This is clearly an undesirable predicament to be in. This article is copyright of IEEE December 2008

Visit the website here.

December 2008

A Practical Guide to 3-D Simulation
A Practical Guide to 3-D Simulation

This article is intended to give design engineers an overview over some properties of numerical methods used in today’s most relevant commercial electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools. It cannot and does not want to be a rigorous analysis of the methods themselves nor a concise description of their history. For an extensive overview, we would recommend textbooks such as [1] and [2]. The authors have experience in not only the research and development (R&D) of numerical methods but also in the support of users in their daily work with commercial simulation software. This article is copyright of IEEE. December 2008

Visit the website here.

October 2008

Microwave Product Digest
Microwave Product Digest

CST DESIGN STUDIO™ - A Tool for the Design of Complex Systems. For complex systems, three dimensional electromagnetic field simulations are challenging in terms of both memory and simulation time requirements. CST DESIGN STUDIO™ (CST DS) is a new electromagnetic simulation tool that facilitates the efficient design of complex and/or highly resonant structures. October 2001

Read the article here ( size: 59 kB).

October 2008

True Transient 3D EM/Circuit Co-Simulation Using CST STUDIO SUITE
True Transient 3D EM/Circuit Co-Simulation Using CST STUDIO SUITE

Today’s engineers are increasingly confronted with simulation tasks that involve the simulation of two types of problems: 3D electromagnetic structures and electronic circuits. The combination of these problems is commonly referred to as EM / circuit co-simulation. Not only can a distinction be made between the methods used to perform a co-simulation, but also in the type of co-simulations available. The need for co-simulation can be seen in many application areas such as antenna design, filter tuning, UWB applications, PCB and signal integrity analysis, RFIDs etc. October 2008

Read the article here ( size: 2260 kB).

Visit the website here.

October 2008

EFFICIENT, ACCURATE, RELIABLE EM SIMULATION TOOL
EFFICIENT, ACCURATE, RELIABLE EM SIMULATION TOOL

In the ongoing race for reduced design costs and faster time to market, simulation efficiency remains the most important factor in electromagnetic field analysis. Simulation efficiency can be determined by the time taken to reach the final design, which is strongly influenced by the level of workflow integration, the versatility in manipulating the model, the choice of solver type, the method’s accuracy, the implementation’s efficiency and, of course, the hardware speed. The new CST STUDIO SUITE 2009, incorporating the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) 3D electromagnetic field simulator for microwaves and RF, has been specifically designed to meet these requirements. October 2008

Read the article here ( size: 286 kB).

Visit the website here.

October 2008

Modeling Conductor Surface Roughness
Modeling Conductor Surface Roughness

Stripline models can be used to determine the impact of copper surface roughness on transmission properties. In high speed digital interconnects, signal attenuation is a result of both dielectric losses and conductor losses. Many articles have shown in detail the characterization and modelling efforts related to the impact of dielectric loss in PCBs and the differences between various dielectric materials1. Nevertheless, high-speed characterization modeling efforts do not often take into account the variations in conductor losses due to copper foil roughness or treatments made to the copper foil to promote adhesion. October 2008

Visit the website here.

September 2008

Signal integrity analysis and circuit extraction of a mounted SMA connector
Signal integrity analysis and circuit extraction of a mounted SMA connector

A physically based method is used for estimating the equivalent circuit model of an SMA connector soldered on the top plane of a multi-layer board and connected to a single-end stripline. Starting from the scattering parameters (S-parameters) evaluated using a simulation software package, the equivalent circuit is extracted by modeling each part of the structure. The circuit is then validated by comparing the outputs obtained via circuit-level simulation of the extracted physical circuit with those computed by means of the full wave solution.

May 2008

Automotive Industries spoke to Bernhard Wagner, managing director of CST by Lenny Case
Automotive Industries spoke to Bernhard Wagner, managing director of CST by Lenny Case

In 2007, the German software firm Computer Simulation Technology (CST) started the development of two new products for CST STUDIO SUITE after it bought a stake in SimLab Software GmbH. The German SimLab develops and markets software products and services in the field of electromagnetic compatibility or EMC. "We have noticed a strong increase in demand for simulation tools from the EMC market. As a result of our collaboration with Simlab, we are able to streamline our customers' workflow, offering a combination of leading edge PCB and cable analyses with highly accurate full 3D EM simulation," said Martin Timm, Marketing Director, CST....." May 2008

Visit the website here.

May 2008

Choosing Software for EMC Simulation
Choosing Software for EMC Simulation

Designing electronic products to meet EMC requirements is becoming more and more challenging. Faster clock speeds and lower operating voltages are leading to enhanced emissions via apertures and seams, from heat sinks as well as an increase in the susceptibility of products. In addition, the trend towards integrating multiple wireless capabilities into products makes it necessary to also deal with the electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects of intentional radiators. May 2008

Read the article here ( size: 283 kB).

Visit the website here.

March 2008

50 GHz End Launch Connector Test Boards
50 GHz End Launch Connector Test Boards

For many years Southwest Microwave has manufactured field replaceable connectors and launch accessories where connector performance was easily verified by measuring two connectors back-to-back as a two-port device. With the introduction and success of Southwest Microwave end launch connectors, the packaging responsibility has fallen to Southwest Microwave. To assure maximum performance of the Southwest Microwave end launch connectors, equally high performance test boards were needed to accurately measure the connectors. March 2008

Visit the website here.

February 2008

Simulating the ESD Measurement for High Value Feedback
Simulating the ESD Measurement for High Value Feedback

Simulating EMC performance using 3D EMmodelling software in the time domain has advantages over frequency domain modelling because a wide frequency band is simulated in one run. However some phenomena like ESD, lightning strikes, EMP or other transient phenomena can only be simulated in the time domain. The TLM-TD method can be used to simulate a model of an ESD gun for analysing induced currents on wires and visualising the discharge current path on electronic equipment. The main benefit of performing an ESD simulation is that it gives results which could otherwise be difficult or even impossible to measure. It is also a very quick simulation to perform. In this paper examples of using the ESD gun simulator to mimic measurement setups and address real design problems at an early stage are presented. February 2008

Read the article here ( size: 176 kB).

Visit the website here.

February 2008

SPICE Modeling from an EM Simulation Environment
SPICE Modeling from an EM Simulation Environment

The operating frequency of high-speed copper backplane serial links is expected to reach 10 Gbps in the next few years. At a 10 Gbps data rate, the clock frequency is 5 GHz, equating to a period of 200 ps, which results in a signal rise time in the range of 30 to 50 ps. This rise time will influence the analog bandwidth and the highest significant frequency component both for the measurement bandwidth and the bandwidth of the channel model. To effectively design a serial link (channel) to operate effectively at this bandwidth, accurate signal integrity modeling is required. February 2008

Visit the website here.

January 2008

ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATION OF MOBILE PHONE ANTENNA PERFORMANCE
ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATION OF MOBILE PHONE ANTENNA PERFORMANCE

The telecommunications sector is making great advances aimed at delivering an even stream of high-tech devices, covering the significant consumer demands in this sector. Electromagnetic (EM) simulation is becoming an increasingly important tool in the design flow, not only at the antenna level but also at the phone and environmental levels. This article compares simulated results with measurements for several steps in the phone design chain. January 2008

Read the article here ( size: 848 kB).

Visit the website here.

January 2008

Predicting Probable Cavity Resonance with a 3D EM Tool
Predicting Probable Cavity Resonance with a 3D EM Tool

Cavity resonance is commonly encountered when the PCBs and RF components are placed in an enclosure. Due to the module height and the housing structure, the standing wave with characteristic such that the E and H fields are 90° out of phase with each other. The impedance will therefore fluctuate wildly across the cavity causing unknown effects on circuitry, including the introduction of instability to active devices. January 2008

Visit the website here.

October 2007

A SOFTWARE SUITE TO AID WORKFLOW
A SOFTWARE SUITE TO AID WORKFLOW

All companies need to see increasing income year on year to please investors and to fund their growth. A mounting need for microwave design, combined with skilled worker shortages, make seamless growth challenging. As a result, engineers in rapidly growing companies are faced with increased workloads, more diverse work and the requirement to work with other, perhaps unfamiliar parts of the company to achieve design goals. October 2007

Read the article here ( size: 643 kB).

Visit the website here.

August 2007

AN INTEGRAL EQUATION SOLVER
AN INTEGRAL EQUATION SOLVER

Research and development engineers working in aerospace and defense continually strive to extend the boundaries of what is technically possible and this extends to the specialized field of electromagnetic simulation technology. One branch in this community deals with the optimization of radar cross sections (RCS), while another concentrates on the influence of the surroundings (an airplane body on the performance of communication or radar antennas, for example). What both of these application areas have in common is the size of the electrical problem, which can typically run to many hundreds of wavelengths, and that the relevant structures are mainly surfaces and free space. August 2007

Read the article here ( size: 1504 kB).

Visit the website here.

June 2007

Suppression of Simultaneous Switching Noise in Power and Ground Plane Pairs
Suppression of Simultaneous Switching Noise in Power and Ground Plane Pairs

Parallel plate waveguide (PPW) noise, also known as simultaneous switching noise (SSN) or ground bounce noise (GBN) is one of the major concerns for the highspeed digital computer systems with fast edge rates, high clock frequencies, and low voltage levels. June 2007

Visit the website here.

October 2006

Micromachining Concept on GaAs and a mm-Wave Oscillator Example
Micromachining Concept on GaAs and a mm-Wave Oscillator Example

Present technology demands reduced manufacturing cost, size, weight and improved performance for wireless and location services exploitation like GPS, as well as for the millimeter wave devices. This kind of demand for wider bandwidth along with state-of-the-art performance can be accomplished with the use of micromachining and MEMS technology [1]. Developing micromachined technology is also essential for the future of integrating the entire communication system on a single chip. October 2006

Read the article here ( size: 166 kB).

August 2006

COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RISES TO THE CHALLENGE
COMPUTATIONAL ELECTROMAGNETIC RISES TO THE CHALLENGE

Unlike other numerical simulation areas like stress or thermal analysis, high frequency computational electromagnetics is an evolving science. Experts still argue about the fastest and most elegant approaches to solving problems and no single method has emerged as an outright winner. To make headway, development teams have to invest time and money in pure research projects with all the associated risk and potential reward that this brings. With a trend towards larger and ever more complex designs, the potential reward for the end-user is the ability to solve previously intractable problems quickly and accurately. August 2006

Read the article here ( size: 693 kB).

Visit the website here.

January 2006

A SOFTWARE SUITE WITH TOTAL SYNERGY
A SOFTWARE SUITE WITH TOTAL SYNERGY

Design engineers currently using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) appreciate its ease-of-use and the insight into devices which together facilitate a significant augmentation of throughput. Now though, these customers may be taken by surprise, because the box containing the eagerly awaited and much publicized new release is titled CST STUDIO SUITE 2006. January 2006

Read the article here ( size: 772 kB).

Visit the website here.

February 2005

A Study of Transition Effects in Supercomponents
A Study of Transition Effects in Supercomponents

Highly dense supercomponents are the basic building blocks of every modern radar, EW or military communication systems. The demand for lower volume, lower weight and increased function has spurred developers to integrate more open-carrier devices within the same supercomponent. The carrier-to-carrier transition has a major effect on channel-to-channel isolation and performance. This article is a study of the effects of two major carrier-to-carrier transition types: microstrip and grounded coplanar waveguide. Ground regime design rules are concluded from the results. February 2005

Read the article here ( size: 967 kB).

Visit the website here.

November 2004

Complete 3D Electromagnetic Field Simulation
Complete 3D Electromagnetic Field Simulation

For design engineers the utilization of high frequency 3D electromagnetic field simulation not only has the potential to save prototyping time and costs but also provides invaluable insight into whether the device is likely to be viable and if further investment is warranted. November 2004

Read the article here ( size: 676 kB).

Visit the website here.

January 2004

From Design to Reality with CST MWS version 5.
From Design to Reality with CST MWS version 5.

From Design to Reality with CST MWS version 5. Development speed is a major concern in today's products' life cycle. Ranking alongside the raw costs involved with prototyping a device, time-to-market is the one key constraint imposed on design engineers. Consequently, any innovative or competitive advantage can easily be lost if advanced ideas get stuck in a long pipeline of reiterations before finally becoming a marketable product. In an increasing number of disciplines, full 3D electromagnetic field simulation is becoming the sine qua non, to advance the prototyping, virtually, to a stage where the realization does not unexpectedly deviate from expectations. January 2004

Read the article here ( size: 718 kB).

Visit the website here.

October 2003

CST DESIGN STUDIO™ Version 3 Enabling Electromagnetic and Circuit Co-Simulation
CST DESIGN STUDIO™ Version 3 Enabling Electromagnetic and Circuit Co-Simulation

by Dr. Martin Timm, CST - Computer Simulation Technology "From circuit board components to antennas, the demands of modern system design are such that multiple tools are required to calculate and optimize the parameters involved. No single vendor can claim to cover all the diverse modeling requirements to the same high level of accuracy or indeed to have an integrated suite of tools for every purpose." Microwave Product Digest, October 2003

April 2003

April 2003

"Integration allows designers to use best-in-class software" Simulation tools are an indispensable part of the radio frequency (RF) and microwave systems design process. The optimization of virtual design prototypes reduces the number of "cut and try" iterations - in which real prototype devices are built and tested - thereby saving time and money. Full article published in Wireless Europe, April 2003

Read the article here ( size: 129 kB).

January 2003

January 2003

CST DESIGN STUDIO™ selected as Top Product by editors of MICROWAVES & RF. January 2003

Read the article here ( size: 99 kB).

October 2002

October 2002
October 2002

"Wireless applications, particularly with multiple resonances, put new demands on antennas pertaining to size, gain, efficiency, bandwidth, and more. One promising approach in this regard is to use fractal geometries to find the best distribution of currents within a volume to meet a particular design goal..." Published in October 2002 by Applied Microwave & Wireless.

Read the article here ( size: 352 kB).

August 2002

A Revolution in the Time Domain
A Revolution in the Time Domain

Read about CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® Version 4 in Microwave Journal's August cover feature August 2002

Read the article here ( size: 282 kB).

May 2002

May 2002
May 2002

"Open Architecture Solves Large 3D Puzzles. Higher speeds and increasingly complex designs are blurring traditional boundaries between system modeling approaches. Complex computations are often best-solved by breaking them into a series of related, smaller problems. That is the approach used in Version 2.0 of CST DESIGN STUDIO™... Published in May 2002 by Microwaves & RF

Read the article here ( size: 96 kB).

March 2002

March 2002
March 2002

Read about designing components containing photonic bandgap structures using time domain field solvers. This article first appeared in Microwave Engineering Europe in March 2002.

Read the article here ( size: 365 kB).

August 2001

Exploring a Three Dimensional Universe
Exploring a Three Dimensional Universe

Read about CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® in the August cover feature of Microwave Journal. August 2001

Read the article here ( size: 161 kB).

Your session has expired. Redirecting you to the login page...