CST – Computer Simulation Technology

Title:
Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index
Author(s):
Jason Valentine, Shuang Zhang, Thomas Zentgraf, Erick Ulin-Avila, Dentcho A. Genov, Guy Bartal, Xiang Zhang
Source:
Nature
Vol./Issue/Date:
Volume: 455, 18 September 2008
Year:
2008
Page(s):
376-379
Abstract:
Metamaterials are artificially engineered structures that have properties, such as a negative refractive index1–4, not attainable with naturally occurring materials. Negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) were first demonstrated for microwave frequencies5,6, but it has been challenging to design NIMs for optical frequencies and they have so far been limited to optically thin samples because of significant fabrication challenges and strong energy dissipation in metals7,8. Such thin structures are analogous to a monolayer of atoms,making it difficult to assign bulk properties such as the index of refraction. Negative refraction of surface plasmons was recently demonstrated but was confined to a two-dimensional waveguide9. Three-dimensional (3D) opticalmetamaterials have comeinto focus recently, including the realization of negative refraction by using layered semiconductor metamaterials and a 3D magnetic metamaterial in the infrared frequencies; however, neither of these had a negative index of refraction10,11. Here we report a 3D opticalmetamaterial having negative refractive index with a very high figure of merit of 3.5 (that is, lowloss).Thismetamaterial ismade of cascaded ‘fishnet’ structures,with a negative index existing over a broad spectral range.Moreover, it can readily be probed fromfree space, making it functional for optical devices. We construct a prism made of this optical NIMto demonstrate negative refractive index at optical frequencies, resulting unambiguously from the negative phase evolution of the wave propagating inside the metamaterial. Bulk optical metamaterials open up prospects for studies of 3D optical effects and applications associated with NIMs and zero-indexmaterials such as reversed Doppler effect, superlenses, optical tunnelling devices12,13, compact resonators and highly directional sources14.
Document:

Back to References

contact support

Your session has expired. Redirecting you to the login page...

We use cookie to operate this website, improve its usability, personalize your experience, and track visits. By continuing to use this site, you are consenting to use of cookies. You have the possibility to manage the parameters and choose whether to accept certain cookies while on the site. For more information, please read our updated privacy policy


Cookie Management

When you browse our website, cookies are enabled by default and data may be read or stored locally on your device. You can set your preferences below:


Functional cookies

These cookies enable additional functionality like saving preferences, allowing social interactions and analyzing usage for site optimization.


Advertising cookies

These cookies enable us and third parties to serve ads that are relevant to your interests.