Aerospace and Marine

Practically every area of engineering has been revolutionized by electronics, and it is increasingly difficult to find even a single part of the modern ship or aircraft that doesn’t use electromagnetic fields in some way. From the thicket of antennas that make up the communication, navigation and collision avoidance systems to the circuit boards and cables needed to operate computerized control systems, there are hundreds of components that need to be designed and integrated into the craft.

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) are particularly important concerns for the designer. Safety-critical systems have to operate side-by-side without any risk to the passengers and crew, and must be able to withstand even the most punishing electromagnetic environments, such as lightning storms and electromagnetic pulses. CST STUDIO SUITE® contains a range of tools for simulating and investigating the performance of on-board equipment.

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®, with its powerful full-wave solver technology, is well suited to probing the behavior of antennas and high-frequency devices, and the integral and asymptotic solvers allow it to efficiently simulate electrically large objects such as the body of a plane or the hull of a ship. The asymptotic solver is especially useful for radar cross-section (RCS) simulations, to calculate the radar backscatter produced by a design. Other tools within CST STUDIO SUITE, such as CST CABLE STUDIO® and CST PCB STUDIO®, offer more specialized tools for designing and validating electronic systems.

Aerospace and Marine

All Articles

Supporting Future Aircraft Certifications with EM Simulations

Supporting Future Aircraft Certifications with EM Simulations
Electromagnetic environments as, for instance, high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) and lightning can degenerate aircraft safe operation and even cause catastrophic effects without any precautions taken. The trend toward all-electric aircraft increases the number of aircraft functions performed by avionics. The risk of failure is even higher for modern aircraft with structures made of carbon-fiber composites (CFC). Read full article..

Airbus Defence and Space Uses CST STUDIO SUITE to Analyze Antenna Systems on BepiColombo

Airbus Defence and Space Uses CST STUDIO SUITE to Analyze Antenna Systems on BepiColombo Document type
BepiColombo is a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The aim of the mission is to send two orbiters to Mercury in order to study its atmosphere, composition and magnetic field to help understand how the planet was formed, as well as to verify some key predictions of general relativity. Airbus Defence and Space (Airbus DS) is the prime contractor for the ESA elements of the mission, including the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). The MPO includes multiple antenna systems – some of which are moveable – for telemetry, tracking and control (TTC) and scientific purposes, mounted on a single satellite bus, along with solar panels and instruments which can obstruct the antennas themselves (Figure 1). In order to ensure that the MPO functions as expected when it reaches Mercury’s orbit, Airbus DS has to investigate any possible issues that could affect antenna performance across all of the spacecraft’s different configurations. Read full article..

8th Order Dielectric Resonator Filter with Three Asymmetric Transmission Zeroes

8th Order Dielectric Resonator Filter with Three Asymmetric Transmission Zeroes Document type
The dielectric resonator fi lter (Figure 1) is a high-performance filter design which is well-suited for applications where compactness and power are important. These sorts of filters are widely used in communication systems – for example, in mobile phone base-stations. The number of independent design parameters that need to be optimized makes higher-order dielectric resonator filters challenging to tune. Simulation software can therefore be used to make it easier to design and tune these filters. Read full article..

"Leaky" Cables Make Fine Broadband Antennas

"Leaky" Cables Make Fine Broadband Antennas
A cable that leaks electromagnetic energy sounds like a defective cable. Yet, ironically, it makes an excellent broadband antenna. To avoid confusion, antennas based on this approach are called leaky feeders. They are typically used in environments that mirror the cylindrical shape and length of the cable: tunnels, mines, aircraft, railroad tracks and skyscrapers. CST provides a tutorial explaining the basic theory and electromagnetic performance. Turning theory into practice, with assistance from W. L. Gore, we examine their use enabling Wi-Fi and cellular service on commercial airlines and corporate jets. Read full article..

RF Breakdown Analysis in Space Applications

RF Breakdown Analysis in Space Applications Document type
Devices in the output section of a satellite payload, including filters and multiplexers are subject to high RF power. This could lead to RF breakdown, which may render the specific device useless and, in the end, degrades the reliability of the satellite. Therefore all space high power devices have to be analyzed with regards to their breakdown behavior. This application note shows how CST STUDIO SUITE® and SPARK3D® can be used to investigate these effects via simulation. Read full article..

Apollo Microwaves accelerates component design with CST STUDIO SUITE

Apollo Microwaves accelerates component design with CST STUDIO SUITE Document type
Apollo Microwaves is a leading supplier of microwave communication components and sub-systems for the satellite and wireless communication industries. They design and manufacture both standard and custom-engineered components for frequencies ranging from 1 GHz to 60 GHz, which means that their product range needs to be very wide. Read full article..

Designing a Phased Array Antenna Using Antenna Magus and CST STUDIO SUITE

Designing a Phased Array Antenna Using Antenna Magus and CST STUDIO SUITE Document type
Antenna synthesis lets engineers investigate many potential designs and produce antennas that fit the specifications quickly. For effects that cannot be accounted for analytically such as edge effects and mutual coupling, full-wave 3D simulation can complement synthesis tools and allow designs to be checked and fine tuned. This article explores the synthesis of an antenna array, using a phased array satellite communications antenna as an example. Read full article..

Design und Bewertung einer Hohlleiter-Schlitzantenne (Slotted Waveguide Antenna,SWA) mit EM-Simulation

Design und Bewertung einer Hohlleiter-Schlitzantenne (Slotted Waveguide Antenna,SWA) mit EM-Simulation
SWAs sind für viele Radaranwendungen nützlich. Sie sind leicht, robust und bieten einen hohen Gewinn und eine sehr gute Richtcharakteristik. Dabei sind sie relativ einfach herzustellen. SWAs bestehen aus einem Hohlleiter, dessen Wand durch Schlitze unterbrochen ist. Read full article..

Traveling Wave Tube Design with Simulation

Traveling Wave Tube Design with Simulation
The development of electron devices or vacuum tubes has advanced a lot over the last century. The principle behind a traveling wave tube (TWT) is the interaction between an electron beam and an electromagnetic wave in a slow wave structure (SWS), by which an input RF-signal is amplified converting the energy of the electron beam into a powerful electromagnetic wave. This webinar will show how the design of such tubes can be bolstered by the use of simulation tools and high-performance computing, beginning with adjusting the geometry of the SWS such that beam and phase velocity of the wave are synchronized. Only one pitch of the SWS needs to be simulated and optimized, using a particle-free eigenmode solver. Further, the analysis of couplers will be shown in terms of their transition behavior. The webinar will conclude with the simulation of a hot test, including the particle beam, to predict the amplification behavior and output frequency. Throughout, simulation speeds and the performance benefits of GPU computing will also be explained. Read full article..

Airbus Defence and Space Analyzes EMC Test Chambers

Airbus Defence and Space Analyzes EMC Test Chambers Document type
Anechoic chamber testing is used to characterize the behavior of devices for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). Since Airbus Defence and Space’s products are used by military contractors, they are tested in accordance with the MIL-STD-461 standard. This specifies the precise set-up of the testing chamber, including the choice of absorbers, the arrangement of the workbenches and the grounding of the system. Read full article..

Modeling and Simulation of Metamaterial-Based Devices for Industrial Applications

Modeling and Simulation of Metamaterial-Based Devices for Industrial Applications
The subject of metamaterials has rapidly grown over the past few years from a hot topic of academic research to a field with interesting and novel industrial applications. The exotic properties of these metamaterials include negative or low values of permittivity, permeability and refractive index, allowing engineers to manipulate the material’s intrinsic parameters to control the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Some recent industrial applications have seen metamaterial transmission lines being used in broadband filters, multiband components, dual-band tags for UHF-RFID and sensors. The metamaterial-based waveguide structures, such as composite right/left-handed (CRLH) structures, have led to interesting applications of waveguide miniaturization and novel coupler design. Metamaterial-inspired antenna design has produced reflex-cavity antennas with low-profile, high gain, beam steering and frequency agility. Read full article..

Advanced RCS Analysis of Airborne Vehicles

Advanced RCS Analysis of Airborne Vehicles
Analysis by electromagnetic simulation allows the designer to characterise the RCS of a target far more extensively than would be possible for similar cost and time expenditure by measurement. CST STUDIO SUITE® provides extensive functionality to analyse and optimise the RCS of targets of all shapes and sizes. Objects of interest imported from a variety of CAD formats can be easily modified and parameterized. Different solver approaches are available to the user, depending on the size and complexity of the model, and on the desired output. Direct simulation in the time domain allows the application of realistic radar signals, visualization of time domain field interaction with the target, and direct calculation of its radar signature. For larger and more complex structures, the MLFMM and asymptotic solvers are optimized for performing fast mono- and bi-static RCS calculations of single and multiple targets (e.g. physical countermeasures), even considering realistic radar antenna source patterns. Complex material properties, for example of Radar Absorptive Material (RAM) and multi-layer coating material can be considered. This webinar will discuss all these issues using a ship-borne aircraft as an example. Read full article..

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure Document type
CST STUDIO SUITE 2016 is the culmination of years of research and development into finding the most accurate and efficient computational solutions for lectromagnetic (EM) designs. From static to optical, and from the nanoscale to the electrically large, CST STUDIO SUITE includes tools for the design, simulation and optimization of a wide range of devices. Analysis is not limited to purely EM effects, but can also include thermal and mechanical effects and circuit simulation. Read full article..

Antenna Magus Flyer

Antenna Magus Flyer Document type
Antenna Magus is a software tool that helps accelerate the antenna design and modelling process. It helps engineers make informed choices of antenna elements from a huge antenna database and to share their proprietary knowledge with others. Good starting designs and parameterised models of antennas can be exported to CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) for further design. Read full article..

Optenni Lab Flyer

Optenni Lab Flyer Document type
Optenni Lab is a novel software with innovative analysis features that increases the productivity of antenna designers and speeds up the antenna design process. Optenni Lab offers fast fully automatic matching circuit optimization tools, estimation of the obtainable bandwidth of antennas and calculation of the worst-case isolation in multi-antenna systems. With these tools the antenna designer can quickly evaluate various antenna designs and concepts, including multiport antennas and tunable matching circuits. Optenni Lab is very easy to use and does not require specialist know-ledge in impedance matching. Read full article..

CST Defense Flyer

CST Defense Flyer Document type
Aircraft, ships, land vehicles and satellites represent some of the most demanding and complex electromagnetic environments. CST STUDIO SUITE brings together 20 years of experience in the simulation of 3D microwave & RF components, antennas and systems. It is used by government agencies and defense contractors worldwide on a daily basis for mission-critical projects. Read full article..

Simulation of EMI in Hybrid Cabling for Combining Power and Control Signaling

Simulation of EMI in Hybrid Cabling for Combining Power and Control Signaling
An increasing trend in the industry is to combine power and control cables into a single hybrid cable design, reducing the complexity of the system and cost. However, without careful design, high voltage power switching transients may lead to unwanted electromagnetic interference. Typical hybrid cable design parameters may include the separation between conductors, twist rate of twisted pairs, shielding and screen types. This webcast will explore the simulation of hybrid cable design using CST CABLE STUDIO and the prediction of EMI levels. Topics covered will include the modeling of shield transfer impedance, crosstalk and induced common mode currents. Read full article..

Modeling HIRF Effects on Aircraft

Modeling HIRF Effects on Aircraft
Electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) can cause electronic devices to malfunction or fail altogether. High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF), from sources such as TV and radio stations, radar and satellite communication systems, may disturb the safe operation of aircraft electronics. The behavior of aircraft when exposed to a HIRF environment can be simulated effectively using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS). With CST MWS, surface current and field distributions can be calculated and the coupling into shielded structures predicted. Read full article..

Matching circuit optimization for antenna applications

Matching circuit optimization for antenna applications Document type
Impedance matching is an essential part of antenna design. The input impedance of an antenna needs to be reasonably close to the amplifier impedance (e.g. 50 Ohm), otherwise the signal is reflected back to the amplifier and not radiated by the antenna. In many applications matching circuits consisting of discrete inductors and capacitors, or transmission lines are used to improve the impedance matching characteristics of the antenna. This white paper discusses the optimization of matching circuits especially to antenna applications. Although the design of matching circuits sounds simple, there are many practical considerations that need to be addressed. Read full article..

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Document type
In this paper a modular approach using the so-called System Assembly and Modeling (SAM) of CST STUDIO SUITE® is used to optimize a reflector antenna system in a piecewise manner. The results are compared to a full system simulation. It is shown that a similar accuracy to that of the full system simulation can be attained with the modular approach with a much shorter simulation time and using less computational resources. Read full article..

A dual-band antenna for a sounding rocket

A dual-band antenna for a sounding rocket
A group at ENSEIRB-MATMECA, Bordeaux Institute of Technology, used CST STUDIO SUITE to develop a low cost antenna that can be integrated into the nose cone of a rocket and transmit payload and telemetry data in the 869.4–869.65 MHz and 2.4–2.4835 GHz frequency bands. Read full article..

Electromagnetic Simulation of Composite Materials and Cable Harnesses in Aircraft

Electromagnetic Simulation of Composite Materials and Cable Harnesses in Aircraft
This webinar will discuss efficient EM modeling techniques for simulating composite materials such as carbon fiber laminates at the full aircraft level. The impact of composite materials on electromagnetic effects including installed antenna performance and lightning strikes will be explored. The webinar will also highlight recent advances in cable harness modeling and the effect of different shielding and grounding/bonding schemes for installation in aircraft. Read full article..

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Webinar

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Webinar
The optimization of high gain reflector antennas presents a real challenge for conventional simulation tools. The range of geometric sizes and physical operating principles means that significant improvements in simulation time can be obtained by the clever combination of different numerical techniques. This webinar will describe how the new smart assembly mode simulation system in CST STUDIO SUITE 2011 enables the engineer to model complex reflector antenna and feed systems efficiently and accurately. Read full article..

A Two-Way Link between CST STUDIO SUITE and Optenni Lab

A Two-Way Link between CST STUDIO SUITE and Optenni Lab
A short video demonstrating the two-way link between CST STUDIO SUITE® and Optenni Lab. Read full article..

Simulation Enabling In-flight Connectivity

Simulation Enabling In-flight Connectivity
Webinar recording of the CST Leading Technology Webinar Series 2011 - Mobile phone and wi-fi communication while travelling by air is now being offered by several airlines and will become standard in future. Ensuring a reliable link depends on having properly designed antennas for the in-aircraft picocell base-stations and for the satellite or ground links outside the aircraft. Read full article..

EMC/E3 analysis of rotorcraft electrical system exposed to antenna radiation and incident EMP

EMC/E3 analysis of rotorcraft electrical system exposed to antenna radiation and incident EMP
This webcast discusses the application of full wave modeling to predicting EMC/E3 performance in a rotorcraft. We start by investigating the coupling from a blade installed on the fuselage to internal cable systems. CST CABLE STUDIO is used to efficiently and accurately model the bi-directional interaction between electromagnetic fields and the complex cable system. True transient co-simulation enables direct time-domain analysis of voltages and currents induced in cable systems, due to an incident EMP. Finally, non-linear components are added to the model to assess the performance of transient protection devices (TPD’s). Read full article..

Electromagnetic Simulation in Radar System Design

Electromagnetic Simulation in Radar System Design
This webcast will discuss the application of CST STUDIO Suite to a full radar system design. CST’s complete simulation technology enables the most appropriate method/solver to be applied to the diverse range of components typically found in a radar system. For the digital design, combined PCB/package analysis is necessary to achieve adequate signal integrity and minimize interference/emissions Read full article..

CST EM STUDIO® and SIMULINK® for the dynamic simulation of a two-state linear actuator for an automated gear box

CST EM STUDIO® and SIMULINK® for the dynamic simulation of a two-state linear actuator for an automated gear box
This article shows a common approach to the simulation of electromechanical problems. A set of 3D electromagnetic field simulations using CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) are carried out on a linear actuator in order to obtain its electromagnetic characteristics for use in Simulink® where both the electrical and mechanical behaviour can be simulated. Read full article..

A 3-Phase Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Generator for Marine Applications

A 3-Phase Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Generator for Marine Applications Document type
This article is concerned with the application of CST EMS to the design and analysis of a tubular permanent magnet linear generator. Demonstrated is the proposal of a possible application of tubular generator, the analysis of a system definition in order to define a first optimization criteria and 3D electromagnetic simulation based on finite inegration method to carry out a parametric analysis of the machine behavior. This is a summary of the work carried out by Andrea Pirisi, G. Gruosso, Riccardo E. Zich of the Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Read full article..

Optimisation of a 10-Way Conical Power Combiner

Optimisation of a 10-Way Conical Power Combiner
This article describes the use of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® in simulating and optimising a 10-way conical transmission line power combiner operating at X-band (6-14 GHz). Simulated and measured results are compared. Read full article..

An efficient approach for wide angle scattering analysis of TT&C antennas on satellite

An efficient approach for wide angle scattering analysis of TT&C antennas on satellite Document type
Marcello Zolesi, Thales Alenia Space The scope of the present work is to analyze the effective coverage of TT&C subsystem of a LEO satellite at an altitude of 700 kilometres. The antenna assembly is made of two units, Main and Fill-In Antennas, accommodated on opposite sides of the spacecraft. Starting from the free-space radiation performance of each of the two antennas, the problem to predict the global TT&C subsystem radiation pattern in presence of the spacecraft is treated in order to identify potential blind areas or interferences caused by the neighbouring structures. The prediction of electromagnetic field scattered in complex environment is usually a hard task since the solution cannot generally be expressed in a simple and/or closed analytical form. Therefore a variety of numerical methods have been developed in literature. The effectiveness of a single method depends on the type of the electromagnetic environment and the working frequencies. The calculations of the global TT&C subsystem radiation pattern in presence of the main spacecraft structures are carried out by means a full-wave electromagnetic software, CST Microwave Studio Integral Solver. The Integral Solver is ideally suited for electrically large structures respect to the wavelength, when dominated by electrical conductors. This solver uses a combination of an open boundary integral formulation and a Multilevel Fast Multi-Pole Method (MLFMM) exhibiting an optimal complexity in terms of memory and simulation time compared to the traditional Method of Moment (MoM). Key-words: Coverage, EIRP, MLFMM, MoM, TT&C antennas. Read full article..

X-Band Squintless Horn Antenna Array (96 elements)

X-Band Squintless Horn Antenna Array (96 elements)
This article concerns the design of a X-Band squintless horn antenna array consisting out of 96 radiating elements. The full design of the 2.4m antenna blank (including the simultaneous excitation of all 96 arms) has been performed within CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The simulated results have been in an excellent agreement with compact range measurements. Read full article..

Magnetostatic simulation of a magnetic injection valve

Magnetostatic simulation of a magnetic injection valve
CST EM STUDIO™ (CST EMS) is applied to the simulation of a magnetic injection valve by use of its non-linear magnetostatic solver. The aim of the simulation is to obtain the force on the valve armature as a function of the air gap between the armature and the main valve housing. Using the powerful and easy-to-use parameterisation features in CST EMS, a familly of force curves as functions of gap and excitation current can be easily generated. Read full article..

Thermal Analysis of a Two-Cavity Dual-Mode Bandpass Filter

Thermal Analysis of a Two-Cavity Dual-Mode Bandpass Filter
The CST EM STUDIO™ Thermal Solver has been applied to simulate the temperature distribution of a dual-mode filter. The current density distribution inside the lossy conductive metals is precomputed by CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® acting as the thermal source. Read full article..

Six-Pole Band-pass filter with Single Cross-Coupling

Six-Pole Band-pass filter with Single Cross-Coupling
Tuning of a coupled-resonator filter is performed in this article by using the group delay response of the input reflection coefficient of sequentially tuned resonators containing all the information necessary to design and tune filters. To achieve high out-of-band rejection losses a single transmission zero is introduced producing a pair of finite frequency poles. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is used to optimize and/or tune the bandpass filter resonse in a complete model by applying the new, fast MOR-Frequency Domain Solver. To speed-up the tuning process the entire model is split up into several sections and recombined in CST DESIGN STUDIO™ to get the overall filter response. Read full article..

CST Charged Particle Simulation Flyer

CST Charged Particle Simulation Flyer Document type
CST PARTICLE STUDIO (CST PS) is a specialist tool for the fast and accurate 3D analysis of charged particle dynamics in 3D electromagnetic fields. As a member of CST STUDIO SUITE, CST PS is fully integrated in the CST design environment, taking advantage of the standard raising user interface as well as the solver technology of our multi-purpose electromagnetic modules CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and CST EM STUDIO. Read full article..

Ferrite-loaded waveguide antenna

Ferrite-loaded waveguide antenna
The behaviour of a ferrite loaded waveguide antenna is predicted first by a 2D-analytical model and second by CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The results of the predictions are compared with measurements. (Courtesy and permission of KAIST Korea.) Read full article..

Bandpass Waveguide Filter with Dual Mode Cavities

Bandpass Waveguide Filter with Dual Mode Cavities
This waveguide filter has been simulated with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® general purpose frequency domain solver applying a tetrahedral mesh. Read full article..

Periodic Eigenmode Simulation of a Travelling Wave Tube

Periodic Eigenmode Simulation of a Travelling Wave Tube
CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® enables the simulation of periodic eigenmode problems such as Travelling Wave Tubes(TWT). The group velocity and phase dispersion characteristics can be extracted as well as the Pierce Impedance. Read full article..

The Modelling of Lightning Strikes

The Modelling of Lightning Strikes
This article examines the modelling of lightning strikes using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS). The surface current distribution due to a double-exponential form lightning strike on the nose of an airplane is calculated by way of example. Read full article..

Antenna Placement on a Box

Antenna Placement on a Box
In this article the new I! Solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is used to calculate the input impedance of a monopole antenna on a conducting box. This simple example demonstrates the accuracy of the Integral Equation Solver. Geometry and results are from the paper "The Input Impedance of a Monopole Antenna Mounted on a Cubical Conducting Box“ by Shyamal Bhattacharya, Stuart A. Long, Donald R. Wilton. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP 35, No. 7, July 1987. The Read full article..

Electrical Fast Transient/Burst (EFT/B) Susceptibility of an LV Circuit Breaker

Electrical Fast Transient/Burst (EFT/B) Susceptibility of an LV Circuit Breaker
The coupled voltage at component level has been simulated using CST MWS for two PCB releases of the same Low Voltage Circuit Breaker (LV-CB) electronic control scheme. The results show a good agreement with actual measurements. Read full article..

Benchmark MEE 1997

Benchmark  MEE  1997
The dual mode filter was developed, measured, and simulated by ESA (European Space Agency). Read full article..

Your session has expired. Redirecting you to the login page...