Automation and Industrial Equipment

Mass production is the backbone of the world economy, and the modern production line is heavily automated at every step in the manufacturing process. Simulation helps the engineer ensure that the equipment works quickly, efficiently, accurately and safely, by allowing the modeling of effects such as EMC/EMI, sparking, ESD and crosstalk.

The simulation tools available in CST STUDIO SUITE® support a wide-range of industrial applications. High-power, low-frequency tools such as welding arms, switchgears and actuators can be modeled in CST EM STUDIO®, while the high-frequency solver technology in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® allows the engineer to simulate applications ranging from radio control systems and sensors to industrial radar and RFID. In addition, CST CABLE STUDIO® and CST PCB STUDIO® offer specialized tools for investigating signal integrity, power integrity, emissions and EMI susceptibility of the systems that control and operate industrial machinery.

CST STUDIO SUITE® supports many widely used CAD package file formats, allowing it to be slotted easily into the product design workflow and closing the gaps between design, simulation and manufacturing.

Automation and Industrial Equipment

All Articles

Fuji Xerox uses CST STUDIO SUITE for EMC-compliant printer design

Fuji Xerox uses CST STUDIO SUITE for EMC-compliant printer design Document type
Modern multifunction printers include many electronic components – often modular to ensure commonality – and these can interfere with each other causing electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues. In addition, electrostatic discharge (ESD) can affect the performance of individual components. Where EMC issues arise during testing, it is not always clear what the cause is. In order to better understand the mechanisms behind these and to find effective mitigation techniques, Fuji Xerox decided to use EM simulation with CST® STUDIO SUITE®. Read full article..

Designing Building Structures for Protection against EMP and Lightning

Designing Building Structures for Protection against EMP and Lightning
This article will explore the use of electromagnetic simulation when hardening facilities against EMP and lightning. EMP is a high-intensity burst of electromagnetic energy that can potentially cause major disruption to vital infrastructure such as telecommunications, electrical power, banking and finance, emergency services, medical facilities, transportation, food and water supply. Lightning can cause significant damage by directly striking a building, when metallic structures such as electrical wiring provide return current flow in an attempt to equalize potentials. It is therefore essential to protect or “harden” critical facilities by stringent electromagnetic design, including shielding to block incident EMP fields, careful treatment of points of entry (POE) and diversion of lightning currents using down-conductors. This article shows how a simulation of the performance of EMP protection measures at the point of entry, such as filtering and clamping, can be set up and carried out. The simulation of a lightning strike to a building structure is also demonstrated, to show how the induced current return paths can be visualized in order to characterize the possible effect of the lightning strike on systems inside the building. This includes an investigation of cable system positioning inside the building and the prediction of induced shield and internal load currents and the analysis of lightning protection system (LPS), taking into account the effect of down-conductor type and grounding impedance. Read full article..

A Multiphysics Approach to Plasma Lighting System Design

A Multiphysics Approach to Plasma Lighting System Design Document type
The plasma lighting system (PLS) operates at radio frequency, which is in the ISM band, 2.45 GHz. This paper presents microwave simulation of a cavity and feeding system using CST® STUDIO SUITE®, with the goals of testing the electrical, magnetic, thermal and mechanical characteristics of the system design. Read full article..

Electromechanically-coupled simulation of a Coaxial Magnetic Gear with multiple rotational moving gaps

Electromechanically-coupled simulation of a Coaxial Magnetic Gear with multiple rotational moving gaps
Magnetic gears are an attractive alternative to mechanical gears since they are contact-free, silent and more reliable. An application of such gears is to increase the torque density in electrical machines. This article demonstrates features useful for the simulation of such magnetic gears and other electromechanical components with CST EM STUDIO®. Transient analysis of the gear, in essence two synchronous machines, eliminates the tedious need to determine the load angle between the moving rotors. Read full article..

Optimization of Torque in a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) for Traction Applications

Optimization of Torque in a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) for Traction Applications
This article summarizes the simulation and optimization of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) commonly used for traction in automotive and transportation systems. The goal is to optimize two conflicting goals - maximize the average torque and minimize torque ripple. The permanent magnet geometry, radial position, angular orientation as well as the barrier shapes were, amongst others, used as variables in the optimization. Read full article..

Electromagnetic Simulation of a Shaded-Pole Induction Motor

Electromagnetic Simulation of a Shaded-Pole Induction Motor
Shaded-Pole Induction Motors, used mainly in household and low power applications, are renowned for their simplicity, low cost and robustness. They are also, however, notorious for their low effciency and low starting torque. To counteract some of these shortcomings, finite element simulation can be applied to improve some of the critical parameters of such motors. This article demonstrates the capabilities of CST EM STUDIO® for this purpose. Read full article..

RFID And Wireless Power Transfer Simulation From Tag to System

RFID And Wireless Power Transfer Simulation From Tag to System Document type
This article discusses the design and modeling of both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) RFID devices using CST® STUDIO SUITE®. This can be done at the level of the individual tag, but also for the entire system, including the reader, the tagged object and its surroundings. Analyzing the entire system with simulation allows the suitability of the chosen RFID system for the application to be investigated, and can reveal unforeseen interactions that can be hard to identify with measurement alone. Read full article..

Application of Electromagnetic Field Simulation Sensor Development

Application of Electromagnetic Field Simulation Sensor Development
This webinar will present several examples of modern sensor designs, concentrating on increasingly important workflows for their simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE®. Their design requires easy model creation, rapid simulation and efficient post-processing. The ability to tailor the workflows to specific user needs is critical, and so this webinar will show how System Assembly and Modeling in CST STUDIO SUITE can help make the simulation process easier and more efficient. Read full article..

CST Sensor Flyer

CST Sensor Flyer Document type
The electromagnetic field and its accurate measurement plays an important role in a wide range of sensor applications. CST STUDIO SUITE® allows the simulation of electromagnetic fi elds in such devices and uses a range of state-of-the art Finite Element Method (FEM) and other complementary simulation methods. The user can choose the best method for efficiently modelling the sensor at hand. This is combined with an easy-to-use but powerful graphical user interface, comprehensive CAD and EDA import and application-oriented workflows. Read full article..

"Leaky" Cables Make Fine Broadband Antennas

"Leaky" Cables Make Fine Broadband Antennas
A cable that leaks electromagnetic energy sounds like a defective cable. Yet, ironically, it makes an excellent broadband antenna. To avoid confusion, antennas based on this approach are called leaky feeders. They are typically used in environments that mirror the cylindrical shape and length of the cable: tunnels, mines, aircraft, railroad tracks and skyscrapers. CST provides a tutorial explaining the basic theory and electromagnetic performance. Turning theory into practice, with assistance from W. L. Gore, we examine their use enabling Wi-Fi and cellular service on commercial airlines and corporate jets. Read full article..

Wireless Power Transfer and Microwave Energy Harvesting

Wireless Power Transfer and Microwave Energy Harvesting
Although wireless energy transfer is an old idea (Tesla patented one design in 1901), technological advances and the rise of portable devices have made it relevant again for different applications, such as wireless charging and energy harvesting. This webinar will consist of two parts. The first part is a review of low frequency power transfer in two categories: short range-inductive charging and powering of electronic devices and electric vehicles, and mid-range power transfer through coupled resonant circuits. We will give several examples and highlight the role of simulation in the design of transfer systems. The tools in CST STUDIO SUITE® used for the design and optimization of these devices will be demonstrated, including the use of hybrid circuit-EM co-simulation to optimize matching circuits to improve link robustness. The second part of the webinar is concerned with wireless energy transfer over longer distances, where the far-field transfer of RF energy may be used. We make a distinction between harvesting RF energy from signals present in the ambient and transferring RF energy by intentionally transmitting RF signals. After a discussion of the power densities, we will continue with (intentional) RF energy transfer for powering sensors to be used in Smart Buildings. The blocks of a far field RF energy transfer system will be discussed: Transmit antenna (and maximum allowed transmit power), propagation channel and rectifying antenna or rectenna. The components of the rectenna: rectifier, dc-dc boost converter and antenna, will then be discussed. Several examples will be shown. Read full article..

Advanced electromagnetic simulation

Advanced electromagnetic simulation
Accurate electromagnetic simulation is enabling devices and components, including coils and permanent magnets, to be designed, modeled and fully optimized. Read full article..

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure Document type
CST STUDIO SUITE 2016 is the culmination of years of research and development into finding the most accurate and efficient computational solutions for lectromagnetic (EM) designs. From static to optical, and from the nanoscale to the electrically large, CST STUDIO SUITE includes tools for the design, simulation and optimization of a wide range of devices. Analysis is not limited to purely EM effects, but can also include thermal and mechanical effects and circuit simulation. Read full article..

Resolving Safety-Critical EMI Problems Between AM Transmitters and Cranes Using a 3D Field Solver

Resolving Safety-Critical EMI Problems Between AM Transmitters and Cranes Using a 3D Field Solver
Electromagnetic fields from two high-power AM transmitters close to a construction site induced dangerously high voltages in crane booms, damaging equipment and injuring workers. With construction halted, a solution was urgently required. Electromagnetic simulation was used to identify the cause of the problem when conventional on-site analysis approaches failed, and allowed the engineers to compare possible ountermeasures quickly. The chosen solution, a large inductive coupling to the ground, was successfully implemented and construction was able to continue. Read full article..

Antenna Magus Flyer

Antenna Magus Flyer Document type
Antenna Magus is a software tool that helps accelerate the antenna design and modelling process. It helps engineers make informed choices of antenna elements from a huge antenna database and to share their proprietary knowledge with others. Good starting designs and parameterised models of antennas can be exported to CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) for further design. Read full article..

Optenni Lab Flyer

Optenni Lab Flyer Document type
Optenni Lab is a novel software with innovative analysis features that increases the productivity of antenna designers and speeds up the antenna design process. Optenni Lab offers fast fully automatic matching circuit optimization tools, estimation of the obtainable bandwidth of antennas and calculation of the worst-case isolation in multi-antenna systems. With these tools the antenna designer can quickly evaluate various antenna designs and concepts, including multiport antennas and tunable matching circuits. Optenni Lab is very easy to use and does not require specialist know-ledge in impedance matching. Read full article..

Electromagnetic simulation of a low voltage industrial circuit breaker

Electromagnetic simulation of a low voltage industrial circuit breaker
This article demonstrates the workflow for the CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) electromagnetic simulation of a circuit breaker in domestic and industrial applications. A CATIA model is imported and parameters attributed to moving parts to facilitate parameter and optimisation simulations. Model courtesy of BTicino SpA, Italy. Read full article..

Analyzing Power Integrity Issues from Power Plane Interactions

Analyzing Power Integrity Issues from Power Plane Interactions Document type
When a printed circuit board (PCB) includes a power plane that is near to signal traces or other power planes, there is a significant risk of energy transfer between parts of the system. Not only does this coupling lead to power switching noise being transferred into data signals, it also means that power supply systems may demonstrate additional resonances that are not seen in the individual components. This can affect the power integrity of the PCB and may reduce its speed or reliability. This paper will explore some of the potential power integrity issues that can affect a PCB and explain how simulation can be used to help reduce these effects. Read full article..

Coupled EM-Thermal Modeling of Power Chokes

Coupled EM-Thermal Modeling of Power Chokes
Power chokes are used together with inverters (e.g. solar inverters) to reduce EMC issues. CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) can be used to calculate the electric losses in the choke winding of a power choke, and these losses can be used as a heat source to simulate temperature distributions using the thermal solvers in CST MPHYSICS® STUDIO (CST MPS). Read full article..

Sensitivity Computation of an Inductive Proximity Sensor

Sensitivity Computation of an Inductive Proximity Sensor
Proximity sensors enable in a simple manner position, size and material of a metal target to be established. Such sensors are in the ability to obtain absolute analog signals proportional to proximity and are compact, robust and reliable constructions. Read full article..

Crosstalk effects of shielded twisted pairs

Crosstalk effects of shielded twisted pairs
This article deals with the modeling and simulation of shielded twisted pairs with CST CABLE STUDIO™. The quality of braided shields is investigated with respect to perfect solid shields. Crosstalk effects are calculated for unshielded twisted pairs, poorly shielded twisted pairs, and twisted pairs with high-quality shields. Explanations are given for the set up of realistic simulations in order to be able to compare them with measurement results. Read full article..

CST EM STUDIO® and SIMULINK® for the dynamic simulation of a two-state linear actuator for an automated gear box

CST EM STUDIO® and SIMULINK® for the dynamic simulation of a two-state linear actuator for an automated gear box
This article shows a common approach to the simulation of electromechanical problems. A set of 3D electromagnetic field simulations using CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) are carried out on a linear actuator in order to obtain its electromagnetic characteristics for use in Simulink® where both the electrical and mechanical behaviour can be simulated. Read full article..

3D EM Simulation of a resistance spot welding gun

3D EM Simulation of a resistance spot welding gun
This article is concerned with the 3D electromagnetic modelling and equivalent circuit parameter extraction of a Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) gun. The parameters for the gun are not as easily established for the gun as for other RSW system components. The current transformer and electronic converter electrical parameters are either known or can be obtained by standard test procedures. This is not the case for the gun where the electrical parameters are unknown and difficult to measure. A 3D EM simulation using CST EM STUDIO® can be used to establish these parameters and complete the system characterisation. Read full article..

3D Magnetostatic Analysis of Magneto-Inductive Devices for NDT

3D Magnetostatic Analysis of Magneto-Inductive Devices for NDT Document type
This work presents the 3D magnetostatic numerical analysis based on Finite Integration Technique applied to the design of magneto-inductive devices for the Non Destructive Testing (NDT) of ferromagnetic ropes. The problem is characterised by several design aspects and by the high saturation level reached in the device core and in the rope under testing. CST EM STUDIO® was used for the virtual prototyping which entailed the the optimisation of permanent dimensions using 3D non-linear magnetostatic optimisation. Measured versus simulated results are presented. Read full article..

Visualize, identify and optimize with MWS @ Hirschmann

Visualize, identify and optimize with MWS @ Hirschmann Document type
Winfried Krämer, Hirschmann Automation and Control GmbH Hirschmann Automation and Control is one of the leading providers of industrial Ethernet at bitrates up to 10 Gigabit per second. Using CST MWS we have examined signal paths regarding signal quality, crosstalk and EMC related issues and have identified influences of vias, stackup and other parameters affecting the quality of our high speed interfaces. As the measurement of impedance of critical pins in the power delivery system is challenging, a simulation allows us to evaluate the position dependent information. Furthermore, we also succeeded in improving housing design in RF-matters, tag and optimize the “sites of crime”. Using the capabilities of a simulation helps us to fit the “first shot” layout into a demanding environment and also to optimize an existing layout to ensure performance at growing requirements to the designs. Additionally, it gives us a cost and time effective possibility to answer the “what if” – questions and visualize the points of interest helps to generate reliable constrains. Read full article..

Magnetostatic simulation of a magnetic injection valve

Magnetostatic simulation of a magnetic injection valve
CST EM STUDIO™ (CST EMS) is applied to the simulation of a magnetic injection valve by use of its non-linear magnetostatic solver. The aim of the simulation is to obtain the force on the valve armature as a function of the air gap between the armature and the main valve housing. Using the powerful and easy-to-use parameterisation features in CST EMS, a familly of force curves as functions of gap and excitation current can be easily generated. Read full article..

RFID Reader-Coil, 13.56 MHz

RFID Reader-Coil, 13.56 MHz
Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RFID) are widely used and allow advanced solutions for a variety of applications in the area of authentication, ticketing, access control, supply management, parking, payment, vending,etc. The example presented here is a RFID Readercoil "P81" from Legic Ident Systems and was modeled and solved using the frequency domain solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS). The sensitivity of the computed complex input impedance with respect to substrate tolerances is computed and was compared to measurement data. Read full article..

RFID Transponder operating at 13.56 MHz

RFID Transponder operating at 13.56 MHz
Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RF-ID) are widely used and are thus one of the fastest growing sectors of todays radio industry, allowing advanced solutions for a variety of applications in the area of authentication, ticketing, access control, supply management, etc. One of the most common band allocated to RFID systems is 13.56 MHz. For this application example operating at this particular frequency band we have chosen a transponder inlay which was created using the ACIS based solid modeler of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® The frequency domain solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® has been applied to accurately predict the input impedance, followed by a lumped element based equivelent circuit derivation to describe the impedance versus frequency. Read full article..

TEAM Benchmark 7 - Asymmetrical conductor model with a hole

TEAM Benchmark 7 - Asymmetrical conductor model with a hole
This article presents the results of a CST EM STUDIO™ (CST EMS) low frequency simulation of the TEAM Workshop Benchmark 7. The excellent simulation performance of the low frequency solver is demonstrated. Read full article..

TEAM Benchmark 8 - Non-destructive testing example : Coil above a crack

TEAM Benchmark 8 - Non-destructive testing example : Coil above a crack
The TEAM Workshop Benchmark Problem no. 8 - Coil above a crack - is solved with CST EM STUDIO™. Results are compared with measurements. Read full article..

Antenna design 3:RFID tag antennas using AMCs

Antenna design 3:RFID tag antennas using AMCs Document type
Antenna design 3:RFID tag antennas using AMCs Read full article..

RFID system design using 3D EM simulation tools

RFID system design using 3D EM simulation tools Document type
RFID is becoming an increasingly important technology with diverse applications in inventory management and product tracking, identification, timing and the biomedical sector, amongst others. Electromagnetic simulation has become an indispensable design tool for RFID tag design and system analysis. This presentation discusses various topics including full model parameterisation to analyse the effects of construction tolerances and geometric variations in conformal tags, the use of hybrid electromagnetic and circuit simulation for full system analysis, and finally the optimisation of tag geometry and sensor placement to fulfil design goals. This paper was presented by Dr. Marc Rütschlin of CST UK Ltd. at the IDTechEx RFID Europe 2008 conference in Cambridge in October 2008. Read full article..

Electrostatic Discharge Modelling

Electrostatic Discharge Modelling
This article describes how CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® may be used for performing simulative tests of the immunity of devices to electrostatic discharge (ESD). A user defined input signal may be combined with an optimised model geometry to closely model the behaviour of a real ESD generator. Read full article..

Design of Circularly-Polarized Patch Antennas using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®

Design of Circularly-Polarized Patch Antennas using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®
An RFID Reader Antenna with the following specifications was designed: - Frequency: 908.5 - 914 MHz (In Korea) - VSWR: less than 2 with 50-ohm impedance - Polarization: circular - Axial ratio: less than 3 dB @ 908.5 - 914MHz - Gain: 6 dBi @ 1W transmitted power - Size and weight: as small as possible This article is published with the permission and courtesy of Prof. Bierng-Chearl Ahn and his colleagues at Chungbuk University, Korea. Read full article..

Modeling and Measurement of Shielding Enclosures

Modeling and Measurement of Shielding Enclosures
The shielding effectiveness (SE) of an enclosure has been simulated by using the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) and then compared to measurement from a known reference case. Read full article..

Electrical Fast Transient/Burst (EFT/B) Susceptibility of an LV Circuit Breaker

Electrical Fast Transient/Burst (EFT/B) Susceptibility of an LV Circuit Breaker
The coupled voltage at component level has been simulated using CST MWS for two PCB releases of the same Low Voltage Circuit Breaker (LV-CB) electronic control scheme. The results show a good agreement with actual measurements. Read full article..

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