Automotive and Transportation

Connected systems are making cars, trucks, trains and metros greener, more comfortable and more intelligent, opening up new avenues for development in navigation, in-car communications, infotainment, security and safety. However, including so many electronic systems in a vehicle means designers must consider electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and interference (EMI) as well as signal integrity (SI) and power integrity (PI) to ensure that the components do not interfere with one another.

With CST STUDIO SUITE®, the behavior of both components and whole systems can be simulated. The wealth of solvers and post-processing templates available allow a wide range of system properties to be calculated and investigated in order to optimize the performance and improve passenger comfort and safety. PCBs and cable harnesses, particularly tricky to model using standard full-wave solvers, can be simulated using the specialized modules CST PCB STUDIO® and CST CABLE STUDIO® respectively. For onboard antennas, EMIT and SAVANT from Delcross Technologies can integrated into the CST STUDIO SUITE workflow to model placement and co-site interference effects.

Automotive and Transportation

All Articles

Electromechanically-coupled simulation of a Coaxial Magnetic Gear with multiple rotational moving gaps

Electromechanically-coupled simulation of a Coaxial Magnetic Gear with multiple rotational moving gaps
Magnetic gears are an attractive alternative to mechanical gears since they are contact-free, silent and more reliable. An application of such gears is to increase the torque density in electrical machines. This article demonstrates features useful for the simulation of such magnetic gears and other electromechanical components with CST EM STUDIO®. Transient analysis of the gear, in essence two synchronous machines, eliminates the tedious need to determine the load angle between the moving rotors. Read full article..

Optimization of Torque in a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) for Traction Applications

Optimization of Torque in a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) for Traction Applications
This article summarizes the simulation and optimization of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) commonly used for traction in automotive and transportation systems. The goal is to optimize two conflicting goals - maximize the average torque and minimize torque ripple. The permanent magnet geometry, radial position, angular orientation as well as the barrier shapes were, amongst others, used as variables in the optimization. Read full article..

Designing Clean Mobile Electronic Devices – Mobile Phone & Automobile Systems

Designing Clean Mobile Electronic Devices – Mobile Phone & Automobile Systems
Mobile electronic devices have become both more numerous and more compact while at the same time integrating more and more radio frequency (RF) functionality. Multiple transmit and receive systems with different communications protocols and with different antennas are routinely being used for personal communications: voice, data, location services, etc. High speed clock and data lines in devices can radiate and couple to antennas. Modern automobiles can have 10 to 30 antennas at different frequencies and locations for functions ranging from collision avoidance to tire pressure. To make introduction of new products in this environment faster, it is important that the possible couplings between the various systems on one platform can be determined before fabrication and field testing. We will discuss the use of CST STUDIO SUITE to perform EM analysis of a cell phone with multiple antennas and high speed data lines, and of an automobile containing an LTE cell phone, commercial FM, GPS, and commercial VHF & UHF antennas. Read full article..

Antenna Design and Placement for the Automotive Market

Antenna Design and Placement for the Automotive Market
Whether for business or leisure, we spend an increasing proportion of our time in our cars. We have seen a corresponding increase in the implementation of all kinds of technologies in the car for entertainment, utility, and safety. A typical high-end car today has AM, FM, DAB and GSM satellite radio, tire-pressure monitoring (TPM), remote entry and start, in-vehicle TV, GPS navigation, Bluetooth, electronic toll collection, and multiple radar systems (e.g. collision avoidance, parking assistance, adaptive cruise control). Read full article..

Frauscher Sensor Technology designs rail wheel sensors with CST STUDIO SUITE

Frauscher Sensor Technology designs rail wheel sensors with CST STUDIO SUITE Document type
The safety and integrity of the modern rail network is possible thanks to an extensive system of sensors that are constantly reporting the location, speed, direction and state of trains. Frauscher Sensor Technology has developed and manufactured high-quality products in the field of inductive sensor technology since 1987, with a focus on railway signaling and train control systems that are responsible for the safety of rail operations. Read full article..

Train Signaling System Interference Estimation by CST MWS

Train Signaling System Interference Estimation by CST MWS
This webinar presents results of the TREND project, that aims to define the conditions to control EM emissions that affect the signaling and communication systems on board of trains. We focus on the EM simulation of the interferences received by BTM antennas (Balise Transmission Module). The BTM loop-antenna is placed beneath the locomotive floor and operates as a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) reader that interrogates balises that are distributed along the railway track as part of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERMTS). The BTM loop is victim of radiated and conducted EM interference generated by the main current path of the train’s engine: from pantograph to the tracks. We make use of TLM solver for wire modeling and combine a high resolution mesh for the BTM antenna embedded into a model that represents Oaris, a train manufactured by CAF. This work is supported in the context of FP7 European project TREND (Test of Rolling Stock Electromagnetic Compatibility for cross-Domain Interoperability, contract number 285259). Read full article..

Electromagnetic Simulation Applied to Automotive EMC Testing

Electromagnetic Simulation Applied to Automotive EMC Testing
Nearly every product that has some sort of electronic circuitry must be subjected to EMC testing prior to its commercialization. In the automotive industry, the large number of electronic modules, sensors, and cable harnesses, many in safety-critical systems, in modern vehicles demands strict standards for reliability and security under challenging conditions. Vehicles must comply with standards such as CISPR-25 and ISO 11451, and individual regulations from the automakers which, very often, are even more stringent. Read full article..

Parametric magnetic field analysis of a Shaded Ring Sensor

Parametric magnetic field analysis of a Shaded Ring Sensor
There are several types of position sensors based on different concepts. This article is concerned with the efficient electromagnetic field simulation of a shaded ring sensor for automotive applications such as the position sensing of a regulating rod in inline injection pumps or, in angular form, in distribution injection pumps. The CST EM STUDIO® low frequency time-harmonic solver is used in parametric mode to obtain the change in impedance as a function of distance between a moveable shaded ring and a fixed stranded coil. Read full article..

Advanced electromagnetic simulation

Advanced electromagnetic simulation
Accurate electromagnetic simulation is enabling devices and components, including coils and permanent magnets, to be designed, modeled and fully optimized. Read full article..

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure Document type
CST STUDIO SUITE 2016 is the culmination of years of research and development into finding the most accurate and efficient computational solutions for lectromagnetic (EM) designs. From static to optical, and from the nanoscale to the electrically large, CST STUDIO SUITE includes tools for the design, simulation and optimization of a wide range of devices. Analysis is not limited to purely EM effects, but can also include thermal and mechanical effects and circuit simulation. Read full article..

Antenna Magus Flyer

Antenna Magus Flyer Document type
Antenna Magus is a software tool that helps accelerate the antenna design and modelling process. It helps engineers make informed choices of antenna elements from a huge antenna database and to share their proprietary knowledge with others. Good starting designs and parameterised models of antennas can be exported to CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) for further design. Read full article..

Optenni Lab Flyer

Optenni Lab Flyer Document type
Optenni Lab is a novel software with innovative analysis features that increases the productivity of antenna designers and speeds up the antenna design process. Optenni Lab offers fast fully automatic matching circuit optimization tools, estimation of the obtainable bandwidth of antennas and calculation of the worst-case isolation in multi-antenna systems. With these tools the antenna designer can quickly evaluate various antenna designs and concepts, including multiport antennas and tunable matching circuits. Optenni Lab is very easy to use and does not require specialist know-ledge in impedance matching. Read full article..

Simulation of EMI in Hybrid Cabling for Combining Power and Control Signaling

Simulation of EMI in Hybrid Cabling for Combining Power and Control Signaling
An increasing trend in the industry is to combine power and control cables into a single hybrid cable design, reducing the complexity of the system and cost. However, without careful design, high voltage power switching transients may lead to unwanted electromagnetic interference. Typical hybrid cable design parameters may include the separation between conductors, twist rate of twisted pairs, shielding and screen types. This webcast will explore the simulation of hybrid cable design using CST CABLE STUDIO and the prediction of EMI levels. Topics covered will include the modeling of shield transfer impedance, crosstalk and induced common mode currents. Read full article..

Automotive PCBs: Efficient Signal and Power Integrity Analysis

Automotive PCBs: Efficient Signal and Power Integrity Analysis
The increasing demand of in-vehicles infotainment systems, along with active safety and electronic multimedia systems, makes simulation of growing importance in the automotive industry. Building a reliable system, shortening the development cycle and reducing the cost are important factors and the use of simulation tools and virtual prototyping are indispensable to achieve these goals. This webinar presents efficient workflows for signal integrity (SI) and power integrity analysis (PI): the pre-layout is addressed using CST DESIGN STUDIO, and for post layout (both SI and PI) analysis, CST PCB STUDIO® will be employed. Several test models are discussed and guidelines on how to improve existing designs and how to build an optimized system are presented. Read full article..

Using 3D Electromagnetic Simulation to Optimize the EMC and EMI Performanceof Automotive Multimedia Systems

Using 3D Electromagnetic Simulation to Optimize the EMC and EMI Performanceof Automotive Multimedia Systems Document type
"Using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO to model EMC and EMI performance has given us the competitive edge with our customers, and has enhanced their trust in our products." Read full article..

Matching circuit optimization for antenna applications

Matching circuit optimization for antenna applications Document type
Impedance matching is an essential part of antenna design. The input impedance of an antenna needs to be reasonably close to the amplifier impedance (e.g. 50 Ohm), otherwise the signal is reflected back to the amplifier and not radiated by the antenna. In many applications matching circuits consisting of discrete inductors and capacitors, or transmission lines are used to improve the impedance matching characteristics of the antenna. This white paper discusses the optimization of matching circuits especially to antenna applications. Although the design of matching circuits sounds simple, there are many practical considerations that need to be addressed. Read full article..

EM Modeling of Aircraft Fuel Systems

EM Modeling of Aircraft Fuel Systems
EADS, Innovation Works in the UK uses CST EM STUDIO® to aid in the simulation of aircraft fuel systems. EADS has developed an internal code for modelling the filling of an aircraft fuel tank. The code simulates this scenario and outputs the electric field, charge density and potential at various points in the tank and fuel over the filling period. Read full article..

A Square Loop Antenna Using Hybrid High Impedance Surface and Four Way Wilkinson Power Divider

A Square Loop Antenna Using Hybrid High Impedance Surface and Four Way Wilkinson Power Divider
A simulation of a planar Square Loop Antenna (SLA) on a Hybrid High Impedance Surface including the feeding part using a 4 way Wilkinson power divider is shown in this article. Placing the planar antenna over a hybrid High Impedance Surface (HIS) can lower the overall antenna profile due to the unique reflection phase of the HIS. The planar SLA produces a semi doughnut radiation pattern which is suitable for vehicular communication. The effect of the feed network and cables on the antenna performance is considered. Read full article..

A Two-Way Link between CST STUDIO SUITE and Optenni Lab

A Two-Way Link between CST STUDIO SUITE and Optenni Lab
A short video demonstrating the two-way link between CST STUDIO SUITE® and Optenni Lab. Read full article..

Calculation of Cogging Torque in a Surface Permanent Magnet Motor

Calculation of Cogging Torque in a Surface Permanent Magnet Motor
CST EM STUDIO® is used to calculate the cogging torque in a 4-pole Surface Permanent Magnet Motor (PMSM). For such a calculation a parametric sweep is performed to determine the torque on the rotor at angular intervals. Only the permanent magnets are required in the model. The stator winding excitation is not necessary for this calculation and is hence omitted in this model. Read full article..

Electromagnetic Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor

Electromagnetic Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor
A Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) can be optimized on two fronts; the magnet design itself and the dynamic performance. Such a motor can be easily simulated with parametric magnetostatic solutions which can be solved using either the CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) 2D or 3D magnetostatic solvers. Only a single 3D model is required for both types of simulation ensuring that the geometry, excitation, materials and boundary conditions are consistent between the 2D and 3D models. Read full article..

CST EM STUDIO® and SIMULINK® for the dynamic simulation of a two-state linear actuator for an automated gear box

CST EM STUDIO® and SIMULINK® for the dynamic simulation of a two-state linear actuator for an automated gear box
This article shows a common approach to the simulation of electromechanical problems. A set of 3D electromagnetic field simulations using CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) are carried out on a linear actuator in order to obtain its electromagnetic characteristics for use in Simulink® where both the electrical and mechanical behaviour can be simulated. Read full article..

VBA Macro for the construction of an EM 3D model of a tire and part of the vehicle.

VBA Macro for the construction of an EM 3D model of a tire and part of the vehicle. Document type
Guillermo Vietti, Politecnico di Torino A VBA script has been developed, controlling all CST STUDIO SUITE™ tools to represent all mechanical elements in the space around the tire in a vehicle, incorporating this complex geometry in a parametric way. One of the applications of this script is for the study of EM field propagation inside and outside the tire. The same script is capable of choosing the appropriate mesh parameters to optimize the simulation time, with the radiating element inside the tire. It is capable also to set field monitors at all frequencies and to run the simulation automatically. The tire geometry is mainly designed with azimuthally variable tire sections, taking in account the deformation of the tire. The main advantages of designing a parametric geometry controlled by a VBA script are the possibility of: -> adapting the model to different vehicles and tires. -> studying the EM propagation in the whole 3D space for different orientations of the tire and angular positions of the radiating element, without the need of re-designing the structure. -> changing the deformation of the tire near the ground surface due to the load of the vehicle, taking into account the asymmetries of the model. The EM effect of this deformation on the propagation depends on the position of antenna. -> running many iterative simulations, changing iteration variables simply introducing the VBA script inside a cycle “for … next”. Read full article..

TLM Simulation of Human Exposure to 400MHz Electromagnetic Fields Inside a Car

TLM Simulation of Human Exposure to 400MHz Electromagnetic Fields Inside a Car Document type
Transmitters used in vehicle environments present potential threats to the health and safety of vehicle users, in terms of both human exposure to electromagnetic fields and vehicle EMC (electromagnetic compatibility). The recently revised automotive EMC directive (2004/104/EC) now requires vehicle manufacturers to identify acceptable frequencies, powers and antenna installations that can be used on vehicles without compromising their EMC performance. The simulations presented here were performed with CST MICROSTRIPES™. Read full article..

Magnetostatic simulation of a magnetic injection valve

Magnetostatic simulation of a magnetic injection valve
CST EM STUDIO™ (CST EMS) is applied to the simulation of a magnetic injection valve by use of its non-linear magnetostatic solver. The aim of the simulation is to obtain the force on the valve armature as a function of the air gap between the armature and the main valve housing. Using the powerful and easy-to-use parameterisation features in CST EMS, a familly of force curves as functions of gap and excitation current can be easily generated. Read full article..

RFID Reader-Coil, 13.56 MHz

RFID Reader-Coil, 13.56 MHz
Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RFID) are widely used and allow advanced solutions for a variety of applications in the area of authentication, ticketing, access control, supply management, parking, payment, vending,etc. The example presented here is a RFID Readercoil "P81" from Legic Ident Systems and was modeled and solved using the frequency domain solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS). The sensitivity of the computed complex input impedance with respect to substrate tolerances is computed and was compared to measurement data. Read full article..

RFID Transponder operating at 13.56 MHz

RFID Transponder operating at 13.56 MHz
Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RF-ID) are widely used and are thus one of the fastest growing sectors of todays radio industry, allowing advanced solutions for a variety of applications in the area of authentication, ticketing, access control, supply management, etc. One of the most common band allocated to RFID systems is 13.56 MHz. For this application example operating at this particular frequency band we have chosen a transponder inlay which was created using the ACIS based solid modeler of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® The frequency domain solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® has been applied to accurately predict the input impedance, followed by a lumped element based equivelent circuit derivation to describe the impedance versus frequency. Read full article..

Non-linear 3D EM Simulation of a Speedometer for Automotive Applications

Non-linear 3D EM Simulation of a Speedometer for Automotive Applications
Automotive suppliers were among the first to incorporate numerical simulation in the product development process to reduce development cycles and minimize the production costs. Electromagnetic field simulation such as provided by CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) helps the engineers to accelerate product development. This article shows the application of CST EMS to the simulation of a stepper motor found in speedometer applications. Read full article..

Magnetostatic Simulation of a Magnetic Brake

Magnetostatic Simulation of a Magnetic Brake
CST EM STUDIO™ can be used to obtain the force-current characteristics of a magnetic brake. The Magnetostatic Solver is ideal for such an application. Read full article..

Electrostatic Simulation of a High Voltage Bushing

Electrostatic Simulation of a High Voltage Bushing
This example shows the simulation of a high voltage transformer bushing using CST EM STUDIO™'s Electrostatic solver. Read full article..

Antenna Placement on a Box

Antenna Placement on a Box
In this article the new I! Solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is used to calculate the input impedance of a monopole antenna on a conducting box. This simple example demonstrates the accuracy of the Integral Equation Solver. Geometry and results are from the paper "The Input Impedance of a Monopole Antenna Mounted on a Cubical Conducting Box“ by Shyamal Bhattacharya, Stuart A. Long, Donald R. Wilton. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP 35, No. 7, July 1987. The Read full article..

Electrical Fast Transient/Burst (EFT/B) Susceptibility of an LV Circuit Breaker

Electrical Fast Transient/Burst (EFT/B) Susceptibility of an LV Circuit Breaker
The coupled voltage at component level has been simulated using CST MWS for two PCB releases of the same Low Voltage Circuit Breaker (LV-CB) electronic control scheme. The results show a good agreement with actual measurements. Read full article..

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