Consumer Electronics and Communication

Wireless systems represent one of our most important markets. Wi-Fi, GPS and mobile telephony applications require high-speed electronics and precisely tuned antennas, shaped to fit within small, sleek and lightweight cases but capable of transmitting and receiving signals as efficiently as possible.

With CST STUDIO SUITE® and Antenna Magus, antennas can be synthesized, simulated and optimized quickly. Antenna Magus contains a large database of antenna designs, for planar, wire, horn and reflector antenna types, which can be adjusted to fit the design specifications. These can then be exported into CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The full-wave 3D simulation tools in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO allow high-frequency electromagnetic systems to be modeled in incredible detail, and tuned and optimized to take into account the couplings between the antenna itself and the rest of the system.

For designing circuit boards and chips, meanwhile, CST STUDIO SUITE includes CST BOARDCHECK and CST PCB STUDIO®. CST BOARDCHECK is a rule-checking program for comparing PCB designs to an array of design rules to minimize the risk of electromagnetic interference (EMC) and signal integrity (SI) problems, while CST PCB STUDIO can simulate board and package designs for a more detailed analysis of their behavior. Both are compatible with a wide range of industry-standard EDA tools, allowing them to fit into almost any design workflow.

Consumer Electronics and Communication

All Articles

Fuji Xerox uses CST STUDIO SUITE for EMC-compliant printer design

Fuji Xerox uses CST STUDIO SUITE for EMC-compliant printer design Document type
Modern multifunction printers include many electronic components – often modular to ensure commonality – and these can interfere with each other causing electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) issues. In addition, electrostatic discharge (ESD) can affect the performance of individual components. Where EMC issues arise during testing, it is not always clear what the cause is. In order to better understand the mechanisms behind these and to find effective mitigation techniques, Fuji Xerox decided to use EM simulation with CST® STUDIO SUITE®. Read full article..

Modeling and Simulation of Metamaterial-Based Devices for Industrial Applications

Modeling and Simulation of Metamaterial-Based Devices for Industrial Applications Document type
Metamaterials o er great potential for the development of new technologies and to make existing devices smaller, faster and more efficient. Metamaterials produce electromagnetic phenomena that are not seen in natural materials, and come in a wide variety of types. When developing a new metamaterial, simulation can be used both to analyze both the bulk property of the material and individual element. This article will show how CST STUDIO SUITE can be used to simulate and design metamaterials through the entire workfl ow, from the design of the resonator to the implementation in a full device. Read full article..

Electromagnetic Simulation of a Shaded-Pole Induction Motor

Electromagnetic Simulation of a Shaded-Pole Induction Motor
Shaded-Pole Induction Motors, used mainly in household and low power applications, are renowned for their simplicity, low cost and robustness. They are also, however, notorious for their low effciency and low starting torque. To counteract some of these shortcomings, finite element simulation can be applied to improve some of the critical parameters of such motors. This article demonstrates the capabilities of CST EM STUDIO® for this purpose. Read full article..

RFID And Wireless Power Transfer Simulation From Tag to System

RFID And Wireless Power Transfer Simulation From Tag to System Document type
This article discusses the design and modeling of both low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) RFID devices using CST® STUDIO SUITE®. This can be done at the level of the individual tag, but also for the entire system, including the reader, the tagged object and its surroundings. Analyzing the entire system with simulation allows the suitability of the chosen RFID system for the application to be investigated, and can reveal unforeseen interactions that can be hard to identify with measurement alone. Read full article..

CST FilterDesigner 2D Flyer

CST FilterDesigner 2D Flyer Document type
FilterDesigner 2D is a fully-integrated tool for the design and synthesis of planar and circuit filters in CST®STUDIO SUITE®. Built on Nuhertz Technologies’ well-reputed and mature technology, FilterDesigner 2D can be used to quickly select an appropriate filter type and generate a simulation-ready circuit or 3D model. Read full article..

CST STUDIO SUITE Simulations Replace Prototype Builds For Convergentia

CST STUDIO SUITE Simulations Replace Prototype Builds For Convergentia Document type
Portable devices such as smartphones and tablets nowadays contain many wireless systems, including cellular, Wi-Fi and GPS. Each system requires a functional antenna, since poor antenna performance may lead to a bad user experience in the form of low data throughput or poor coverage, and can cause calls to be dropped and car navigation to fail. On the other hand, devices must look appealing and their size must be minimized. The thinness of the devices and the presence of metallic structures have caused challenges to antenna design. Without 3D simulations, there is a high risk of having poor antenna performance or clumsy industrial design. The alternative for antenna verifi cation is to use multiple prototyping rounds, which are expensive and have a long lead time. However, there are things that cannot be effectively studied with prototypes, for example grounding structures and impedance matching networks. Read full article..

Application of Electromagnetic Field Simulation Sensor Development

Application of Electromagnetic Field Simulation Sensor Development
This webinar will present several examples of modern sensor designs, concentrating on increasingly important workflows for their simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE®. Their design requires easy model creation, rapid simulation and efficient post-processing. The ability to tailor the workflows to specific user needs is critical, and so this webinar will show how System Assembly and Modeling in CST STUDIO SUITE can help make the simulation process easier and more efficient. Read full article..

Designing Clean Mobile Electronic Devices – Mobile Phone & Automobile Systems

Designing Clean Mobile Electronic Devices – Mobile Phone & Automobile Systems
Mobile electronic devices have become both more numerous and more compact while at the same time integrating more and more radio frequency (RF) functionality. Multiple transmit and receive systems with different communications protocols and with different antennas are routinely being used for personal communications: voice, data, location services, etc. High speed clock and data lines in devices can radiate and couple to antennas. Modern automobiles can have 10 to 30 antennas at different frequencies and locations for functions ranging from collision avoidance to tire pressure. To make introduction of new products in this environment faster, it is important that the possible couplings between the various systems on one platform can be determined before fabrication and field testing. We will discuss the use of CST STUDIO SUITE to perform EM analysis of a cell phone with multiple antennas and high speed data lines, and of an automobile containing an LTE cell phone, commercial FM, GPS, and commercial VHF & UHF antennas. Read full article..

Power Delivery Network PDN Analysis

Power Delivery Network PDN Analysis
This webinar consists of two parts. The first part will highlight the role of simulation in the design of PCB power delivery network (PDN) systems, including the voltage regulator module (VRM), decoupling capacitors (decap), and the spreading parasitic of the power/ground plane. The PDN analysis will focus on both the static case (voltage or IR-Drop) and AC analysis in the frequency domain, with the main focus on PDN impedance. In addition to the AC analysis, we will also demonstrate the decap optimizing tool, which is mainly used to optimize the number of decaps while reaching the target impedance. A brief explanation about the SSO (simultaneously switching output) and the major challenges for simulating this (SI/PI co-simulation) will close the first part of this webinar. The second part of the webinar will cover the measurement methodology for the PDN impedance of the power supply plane of the PCB. This will include the measurement the PDN impedance from only one side of the PCB without the connector. Read full article..

Antenna Design and Placement for the Automotive Market

Antenna Design and Placement for the Automotive Market
Whether for business or leisure, we spend an increasing proportion of our time in our cars. We have seen a corresponding increase in the implementation of all kinds of technologies in the car for entertainment, utility, and safety. A typical high-end car today has AM, FM, DAB and GSM satellite radio, tire-pressure monitoring (TPM), remote entry and start, in-vehicle TV, GPS navigation, Bluetooth, electronic toll collection, and multiple radar systems (e.g. collision avoidance, parking assistance, adaptive cruise control). Read full article..

Simulation-Enabled 5G Antenna Design

Simulation-Enabled 5G Antenna Design
Mobile communication speed requirements are rapidly increasing as the number, variety and function of mobile consumer devices flourish. To meet these needs, research and development regarding fifth generation (5G) antennas is already underway. This webinar shows the workflow and simulation features in CST STUDIO SUITE that are enabling antenna engineers to envision and design the next generation of mobile device antennas. Compact, smart antenna array concepts provide the necessary data performance, but pose a unique challenge for antenna designers. Read full article..

3D EM Modeling of a DDR4 Memory Channel

3D EM Modeling of a DDR4 Memory Channel
The modeling section of the webinar will look at the importance of return path discontinuities. When should we use a 2D approach and when do we need 3D full-wave solver? Can we adopt a "cascaded S-parameter” approach to modeling a channel, where each component is simulated separately, or must we revert to "combined 3D modeling", in which the full channel – controller package, motherboard and DIMM connector – are combined in a single 3D CAD model? Read full article..

Simulation for EMC Performance in Modern Electronics

Simulation for EMC Performance in Modern Electronics
The design flow for a modern complex electronic device involves many stages, and the earlier potential EMC problems in the design are detected, the easier and cheaper it can be to mitigate them. In this webinar we will focus on two topics: shielding effectiveness of enclosures and routing of differential lines. Even though the topics sound unrelated, they can be efficiently simulated with the same methods. This webinar uses a realistic demonstrator PCB and enclosure, which were first shown in our webinar from November 2013, “EMC Simulation in the Design Flow of Modern Electronics” – however, this webinar explores different topics and can be watched as a standalone. Read full article..

8th Order Dielectric Resonator Filter with Three Asymmetric Transmission Zeroes

8th Order Dielectric Resonator Filter with Three Asymmetric Transmission Zeroes Document type
The dielectric resonator fi lter (Figure 1) is a high-performance filter design which is well-suited for applications where compactness and power are important. These sorts of filters are widely used in communication systems – for example, in mobile phone base-stations. The number of independent design parameters that need to be optimized makes higher-order dielectric resonator filters challenging to tune. Simulation software can therefore be used to make it easier to design and tune these filters. Read full article..

CST Sensor Flyer

CST Sensor Flyer Document type
The electromagnetic field and its accurate measurement plays an important role in a wide range of sensor applications. CST STUDIO SUITE® allows the simulation of electromagnetic fi elds in such devices and uses a range of state-of-the art Finite Element Method (FEM) and other complementary simulation methods. The user can choose the best method for efficiently modelling the sensor at hand. This is combined with an easy-to-use but powerful graphical user interface, comprehensive CAD and EDA import and application-oriented workflows. Read full article..

"Leaky" Cables Make Fine Broadband Antennas

"Leaky" Cables Make Fine Broadband Antennas
A cable that leaks electromagnetic energy sounds like a defective cable. Yet, ironically, it makes an excellent broadband antenna. To avoid confusion, antennas based on this approach are called leaky feeders. They are typically used in environments that mirror the cylindrical shape and length of the cable: tunnels, mines, aircraft, railroad tracks and skyscrapers. CST provides a tutorial explaining the basic theory and electromagnetic performance. Turning theory into practice, with assistance from W. L. Gore, we examine their use enabling Wi-Fi and cellular service on commercial airlines and corporate jets. Read full article..

RF Breakdown Analysis in Space Applications

RF Breakdown Analysis in Space Applications Document type
Devices in the output section of a satellite payload, including filters and multiplexers are subject to high RF power. This could lead to RF breakdown, which may render the specific device useless and, in the end, degrades the reliability of the satellite. Therefore all space high power devices have to be analyzed with regards to their breakdown behavior. This application note shows how CST STUDIO SUITE® and SPARK3D® can be used to investigate these effects via simulation. Read full article..

Apollo Microwaves accelerates component design with CST STUDIO SUITE

Apollo Microwaves accelerates component design with CST STUDIO SUITE Document type
Apollo Microwaves is a leading supplier of microwave communication components and sub-systems for the satellite and wireless communication industries. They design and manufacture both standard and custom-engineered components for frequencies ranging from 1 GHz to 60 GHz, which means that their product range needs to be very wide. Read full article..

Designing a Phased Array Antenna Using Antenna Magus and CST STUDIO SUITE

Designing a Phased Array Antenna Using Antenna Magus and CST STUDIO SUITE Document type
Antenna synthesis lets engineers investigate many potential designs and produce antennas that fit the specifications quickly. For effects that cannot be accounted for analytically such as edge effects and mutual coupling, full-wave 3D simulation can complement synthesis tools and allow designs to be checked and fine tuned. This article explores the synthesis of an antenna array, using a phased array satellite communications antenna as an example. Read full article..

Dielectric and conductor loss simulation

Dielectric and conductor loss simulation
The drive toward increased integration densities of electronic devices has led to smaller transmission line conductor sizes and structures consisting of multiple lossy dielectrics. At the same time, higher bit-rates of 100 GBits/s, has led to increased loss due to skin-effects. Losses in these types of transmission lines are often difficult to predict due to non-ideal transmission line cross-sections, including surface roughness and edge-shape effects. To develop realistic simulated insertion loss, all insertion loss components need to be considered and accounted for. Dielectric and conductor loss components require careful material parameterization and structure set up. An overview of these parameterizations and set up will be given, including the trace cross-section shape influence on conductor loss, an often overlooked phenomenon. Options for including surface roughness contribution to conductor loss, for both full wave 3D and analytical models, will be explored. Read full article..

EMC Simulation in the Design Flow of Modern Electronics

EMC Simulation in the Design Flow of Modern Electronics
EMC compliance is a necessary condition for releasing products to market. National and international standards bodies such as the IEC2 and the FCC3 define limits on the emissions a device is allowed to produce, and automotive and aerospace manufacturers can set even stricter standards for their OEM suppliers. If these standards are not met, the product cannot be sold. Read full article..

Wireless Power Transfer and Microwave Energy Harvesting

Wireless Power Transfer and Microwave Energy Harvesting
Although wireless energy transfer is an old idea (Tesla patented one design in 1901), technological advances and the rise of portable devices have made it relevant again for different applications, such as wireless charging and energy harvesting. This webinar will consist of two parts. The first part is a review of low frequency power transfer in two categories: short range-inductive charging and powering of electronic devices and electric vehicles, and mid-range power transfer through coupled resonant circuits. We will give several examples and highlight the role of simulation in the design of transfer systems. The tools in CST STUDIO SUITE® used for the design and optimization of these devices will be demonstrated, including the use of hybrid circuit-EM co-simulation to optimize matching circuits to improve link robustness. The second part of the webinar is concerned with wireless energy transfer over longer distances, where the far-field transfer of RF energy may be used. We make a distinction between harvesting RF energy from signals present in the ambient and transferring RF energy by intentionally transmitting RF signals. After a discussion of the power densities, we will continue with (intentional) RF energy transfer for powering sensors to be used in Smart Buildings. The blocks of a far field RF energy transfer system will be discussed: Transmit antenna (and maximum allowed transmit power), propagation channel and rectifying antenna or rectenna. The components of the rectenna: rectifier, dc-dc boost converter and antenna, will then be discussed. Several examples will be shown. Read full article..

MIMO Antenna Systems for Advanced Communication

MIMO Antenna Systems for Advanced Communication
Multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) systems are a major field of study for researchers interested in achieving high data rate communication in typical urban multi-path environments. Although a fast analysis can be based on S-parameters, this approach has limitations. A more detailed analysis needs to take into account broadband, farfield and antenna properties. These are especially important in presence of the human body. This webinar will show how simulation can be used to calculate the effect of hand and head (e.g. CTIA models) on mobile devices, MIMO for wearable antennas and different power weighting functions for different environments, along with post-processing options for envelope correlation (including spatial power weighting functions), derived quantities diversity gain and multiplexing efficiency. Finally, there will be a demonstration of the link between CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® and Optenni Lab for multiple antenna matching to optimize power transfer to antennas while minimizing cross-coupling. Read full article..

Simulation and Measurement: Complementary Design Tools

Simulation and Measurement: Complementary Design Tools
The usual aim of electromagnetic simulation in design is to lower the number of prototypes to reduce costs and time to market. However, this is only possible when the EM simulator is given the correct input data that accurately represents the physical device. Then an excellent agreement between simulation and measurement can be expected. There are many possible causes of discrepancies between the two, including geometric differences (over-etching, over-milling, rounded corners), material properties (anisotropic dielectrics, surface roughness), installed performance (surrounding structures) and feed discrepancies (connector modeling). This webinar will explore the relationship between simulation, using CST STUDIO SUITE®, and measurement, and explain what each domain is best suited for. In some situations measurement can be difficult to perform while simulation is simpler, and vice versa. Simulation allows many variations on a design to be investigated, using techniques such as parameter sweeps, sensitivity and yield analysis. The webinar will also demonstrate how simulation can be used for what-if analysis and feasibility studies at early stage of design before first prototypes. Finally, the use of measured data to calibrate simulation will be shown. This is useful for hard-to-model phenomena like surface roughness or for the modeling of low-cost adapters. Read full article..

Microstrip Patch Array Design

Microstrip Patch Array Design
This article explains the design process for a planar microstrip patch array for WLAN frequencies using the circuit and full-wave 3D solvers and optimization tools in CST STUDIO SUITE®. The goal in this case is to design an array with high directivity, low cost and low sidelobes, exhibiting a good impedance matching in the frequency range 5.18 – 5.85 GHz. The same approach can also be used to design other types of array by using a different radiator or array layout. Read full article..

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure Document type
CST STUDIO SUITE 2016 is the culmination of years of research and development into finding the most accurate and efficient computational solutions for lectromagnetic (EM) designs. From static to optical, and from the nanoscale to the electrically large, CST STUDIO SUITE includes tools for the design, simulation and optimization of a wide range of devices. Analysis is not limited to purely EM effects, but can also include thermal and mechanical effects and circuit simulation. Read full article..

Electromagnetic circuit Co-Simulation of a touchscreen capacitance sensor system

Electromagnetic circuit Co-Simulation of a touchscreen capacitance sensor system
Electromagnetic field simulation is an extremely useful tool in the design and analysis of touchscreen devices. The capacitance matrix is extracted for complex electrode systems and can take into account the presence of a finger. The capacitance is then used in circuit simulation to model the system level performance of the device. The CST EMS Electrostatic solver may be used to extract the capacitance matrix and seamlessly transfer it into the integrated CST DS circuit simulator. This example shows the approach in the analysis of a touchscreen system. Read full article..

Embedded Dual-Band GSM Antenna Design

Embedded Dual-Band GSM Antenna Design Document type
This application note illustrates how CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS), Antenna Magus and Optenni Lab can be used in combination to improve an existing GSM tracking device application. The requirement was to replace an existing “off-the-shelf” antenna on a GSM tracking device with an embedded, integrated antenna in order to reduce manufacturing and component costs. The new antenna had to operate inside the standard GSM 900 and 1800 frequency bands and had to use the existing substrate and metallic layers, without changing the existing circuit layout or the size of the PCB. The new integrated antenna was designed using Antenna Magus in combination with CST MWS to account for unwanted coupling, ensuring that the antenna operated within the desired frequency bands. Read full article..

Antenna Magus Flyer

Antenna Magus Flyer Document type
Antenna Magus is a software tool that helps accelerate the antenna design and modelling process. It helps engineers make informed choices of antenna elements from a huge antenna database and to share their proprietary knowledge with others. Good starting designs and parameterised models of antennas can be exported to CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) for further design. Read full article..

Optenni Lab Flyer

Optenni Lab Flyer Document type
Optenni Lab is a novel software with innovative analysis features that increases the productivity of antenna designers and speeds up the antenna design process. Optenni Lab offers fast fully automatic matching circuit optimization tools, estimation of the obtainable bandwidth of antennas and calculation of the worst-case isolation in multi-antenna systems. With these tools the antenna designer can quickly evaluate various antenna designs and concepts, including multiport antennas and tunable matching circuits. Optenni Lab is very easy to use and does not require specialist know-ledge in impedance matching. Read full article..

Wearable Antennas for Body Centric Wireless Communication

Wearable Antennas for Body Centric Wireless Communication
Wireless body area networks are an increasingly important area of research and show great promise for monitoring and communication in diverse application areas such as healthcare, public safety and defence. The antenna is the crucial enabling component which allows communication between sensors, and with other off-body systems (e.g. GPS and GSM). But the antenna operates in a particularly challenging environment, in close proximity to the human body, and its performance may be affected by deformation, e.g. if integrated directly into clothing. The design of these antennas is thus challenging, and numerical simulation is an indispensable tool for the antenna engineer. This webinar will discuss the key challenges in the virtual prototyping of body worn antennas, describing how CST MICROWAVE STUDIO can be used to construct realistic flexible and conformal geometries, and how these can be studied and optimized in the context of their body-centric environment. Read full article..

Thermal Modeling of Heat Sinks

Thermal Modeling of Heat Sinks
Heat sinks serve to transfer the generated heat of an electronic system away from the active and passive electronic components and toward the ambient environment. This article shows how temperature distributions and heat flows can be efficiently simulated using CST MPHYSICS® STUDIO (CST MPS). Read full article..

EMC simulation of consumer electronic devices

EMC simulation of consumer electronic devices
All consumer electronic devices need to meet EMC standards. By including EMC compliant design at an early stage, additional costly iterations can be avoided later on down the line. In this webinar we will present how board-level EMC design can significantly reduce emissions at their source. We will then focus on system level EMC, discussing different approaches of segmenting the system for an efficient simulation workflow. Finally we will analyze immunity, by demonstrating how different return current path configurations can affect performance of the device due to cable entry susceptibility. Read full article..

Pulse Electronics improves antenna evaluation and reduces product design lead time with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO

Pulse Electronics improves antenna evaluation and reduces product design lead time with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Document type
Pulse Electronics Mobile Division produces compact antennas for mobile communications and networking. Mobile antennas need to function in complex and mechanically limited environments, and so most antennas used today are specially designed and customer-specific. Read full article..

Integrated Antenna Design for a GSM Tracking Device

Integrated Antenna Design for a GSM Tracking Device
A common strategy when designing an electronic communication device is to use an off-the-shelf antenna. Although the ease with which such antennas can be obtained is a certain benefit, the designer is limited to commercially available antennas which may not be of the right shape for the application, and when purchased in bulk, could become quite costly. In this webinar we aim to illustrate, through demonstration of a real world example, how an existing chip antenna on a GSM tracking device designed to monitor the acceleration (and thus level of distress) of sheep, can be replaced by an embedded, integrated antenna. The final design shows improved antenna performance and communication range while adhering to the technical and spatial requirements. In addition, its planar nature allows it to be integrated with the existing PCB layout, resulting in reduced manufacturing and assembly time and costs. The webinar will show how the design capabilities of Antenna Magus, a searchable database of antennas, can be combined with the full-wave 3D electromagnetic simulation tools in CST STUDIO SUITE to create an embedded design, where full coupling in a complex environment can be taken into account Read full article..

Matching circuit optimization for antenna applications

Matching circuit optimization for antenna applications Document type
Impedance matching is an essential part of antenna design. The input impedance of an antenna needs to be reasonably close to the amplifier impedance (e.g. 50 Ohm), otherwise the signal is reflected back to the amplifier and not radiated by the antenna. In many applications matching circuits consisting of discrete inductors and capacitors, or transmission lines are used to improve the impedance matching characteristics of the antenna. This white paper discusses the optimization of matching circuits especially to antenna applications. Although the design of matching circuits sounds simple, there are many practical considerations that need to be addressed. Read full article..

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Document type
In this paper a modular approach using the so-called System Assembly and Modeling (SAM) of CST STUDIO SUITE® is used to optimize a reflector antenna system in a piecewise manner. The results are compared to a full system simulation. It is shown that a similar accuracy to that of the full system simulation can be attained with the modular approach with a much shorter simulation time and using less computational resources. Read full article..

Installed Performance of Communication Antenna Arrays

Installed Performance of Communication Antenna Arrays Document type
The presence of multiple communication antennas on a tower means that antennas may have to be installed in sub-optimal positions. Electromagnetic simulation can be used to design the antennas themselves, and also to optimise the positioning of the antennas on the tower. This article will describe how multiple solvers in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® can be combined to predict where to install an omnidirectional stacked bicone antenna array to minimise loss of omnidirectionality. Read full article..

Intelligent Representation of Anechoic Chamber Wall Cuts Electromagnetic Simulation Time 95%

Intelligent Representation of Anechoic Chamber Wall Cuts Electromagnetic Simulation Time 95%
Electromagnetic simulation of anechoic chambers is a very difficult task. Gwenaël Dun, R&D Engineer for Siepel, used a variety of different electromagnetic simulation tools to address this challenge in the past but ran into problems with both poor accuracy and long compute times. He then worked with the developers of CST MICROSTRIPES™ electromagnetic simulation software, to implement a feature that makes it possible to model the ferrite absorbers used in the chamber as a boundary condition rather than part of the computational domain. This change made it possible to increase mesh size by a factor of 15, reducing compute time by more than 95%. The simulation results provided a near-perfect match to physical testing. Read full article..

3D EM simulation of mixed analog / digital multilayer PCB

3D EM simulation of mixed analog / digital multilayer PCB
This article describes the use of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) to solve a coupling problem in a mixed analog – digital multilayer PCB card. Courtesy and permission of Alvarion, Ltd, Tel-Aviv, Israel. This example gives an insight into the usefulness of simulation of problems that cannot be investigated easily via measurement and allows the engineer to carry out virtual experiments as demonstrated here with the cutting of the signal trace. Experiments may show the presence of a particular problem but not its location. Even when the problem has been located, further prototypes and experiments are costly and time-consuming. CST MWS offers a straightforward workflow for the set-up and simulation of such problems via its advanced user-interface and EDA interfaces. Read full article..

Analyzing Power Integrity Issues from Power Plane Interactions

Analyzing Power Integrity Issues from Power Plane Interactions Document type
When a printed circuit board (PCB) includes a power plane that is near to signal traces or other power planes, there is a significant risk of energy transfer between parts of the system. Not only does this coupling lead to power switching noise being transferred into data signals, it also means that power supply systems may demonstrate additional resonances that are not seen in the individual components. This can affect the power integrity of the PCB and may reduce its speed or reliability. This paper will explore some of the potential power integrity issues that can affect a PCB and explain how simulation can be used to help reduce these effects. Read full article..

Applications of CST to modelling human interaction with EM fields: a metrological perspective

Applications of CST to modelling human interaction with EM fields: a metrological perspective Document type
This presentation from Benjamin Loader, National Physical Laboratory, demonstrates the use of voxel models with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® for simulating the interaction between EM fields and the human body. Read full article..

A Multiphysics Approach to Magnetron and Microwave Oven Design

A Multiphysics Approach to Magnetron and Microwave Oven Design Document type
The magnetrons used in microwave ovens operate on the same frequency band as Wi-Fi equipment, and the radiation they release can interfere with the operation of wireless networks. This paper presents a multiphysics simulation of a magnetron using CST STUDIO SUITE®, with the aim of testing the electrical, magnetic, thermal and mechanical characteristics of a low-interference magnetron design. The simulation results are then compared to measurements made experimentally, and the two sets of results are shown to be in good agreement. Read full article..

New simulation workflows for predicting radiated emissions

New simulation workflows for predicting radiated emissions
In this video powerful new workflows for reliably predicting radiated emissions from electronics systems will be discussed. We start by importing a complex PCB model into CST PCB STUDIO and applying new EMC rules checking algorithms to rapidly identify potential weaknesses in the design. Critical nets, planes and vias are then analyzed to determine the differential mode (DM) to common mode (CM) conversion caused by driver skew and line imbalance. Finally, the resulting transient noise waveforms are injected into a 3D model of the connector/cable assembly and radiated emissions predicted. Important features of a typical anechoic chamber test are represented in the model using external ground plane reflections and cylindrical scanning to detect the peak emissions. Read full article..

Reconfigurable Antenna Simulation

Reconfigurable Antenna Simulation
Packing more functionality into ever smaller spaces has made reconfigurable antennas very attractive for telecommunications engineers, especially given the ever expanding landscape of cellular network standards. As with any other antenna application, virtual prototyping is extremely important for accelerating the product design cycle and reducing time to market. This webinar will introduce the concepts involved in making antennas reconfigurable – for example tunable materials, mechanical reconfigurability, and RF MEMS and PIN diode switches – and will address how these can be simulated efficiently using the advanced tools in CST STUDIO SUITE 2011. Read full article..

From Layout to Eye Diagram CST STUDIO SUITE and the EDA Workflow

From Layout to Eye Diagram CST STUDIO SUITE and the EDA Workflow Document type
Ensuring good Signal Integrity (SI) in high-speed communication PCBs is becoming more challenging as layouts become more complex, the number of layers increases and the boards get smaller. A full-wave three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic simulator can be used to simulate and visualize the propagation of electromagnetic fields across PCBs. This article will describe how CST STUDIO SUITE® can be successfully used to characterize the response of high-speed channels, and how typical SI results such as S-parameters, Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) data and eye diagrams can be numerically calculated to predict the response of a channel. The article will also discuss how to modify layouts in order to improve channel performance, and provide some design guidelines. Read full article..

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Webinar

Optimization of a Reflector Antenna System Webinar
The optimization of high gain reflector antennas presents a real challenge for conventional simulation tools. The range of geometric sizes and physical operating principles means that significant improvements in simulation time can be obtained by the clever combination of different numerical techniques. This webinar will describe how the new smart assembly mode simulation system in CST STUDIO SUITE 2011 enables the engineer to model complex reflector antenna and feed systems efficiently and accurately. Read full article..

Modeling the susceptibility of enclosures to ESD and the effect of attaching cables

Modeling the susceptibility of enclosures to ESD and the effect of attaching cables
This webcast in the series discusses recent advances in modeling ESD generators using CST STUDIO. Direct transient analysis is used to simulate the ESD test waveforms defined by the IEC 61000-4-2 standard. We demonstrate the importance of modeling the physical geometry of the generator, including the ground strap. We simulate a direct contact discharge to an enclosure and predict the resulting current paths and radiated electromagnetic fields. Finally, we investigate the effect of attaching cables to the enclosure. Read full article..

A Two-Way Link between CST STUDIO SUITE and Optenni Lab

A Two-Way Link between CST STUDIO SUITE and Optenni Lab
A short video demonstrating the two-way link between CST STUDIO SUITE® and Optenni Lab. Read full article..

Simulation Enabling In-flight Connectivity

Simulation Enabling In-flight Connectivity
Webinar recording of the CST Leading Technology Webinar Series 2011 - Mobile phone and wi-fi communication while travelling by air is now being offered by several airlines and will become standard in future. Ensuring a reliable link depends on having properly designed antennas for the in-aircraft picocell base-stations and for the satellite or ground links outside the aircraft. Read full article..

Electrical Performance of High Speed Signaling in Coupled Microstrip Lines

Electrical Performance of High Speed Signaling in Coupled Microstrip Lines
The electrical performance of high speed signaling in coupled differential microstrip lines is analyzed. Based on the modal decomposition analysis, the cancellation frequency in the single-ended insertion loss response is explained and a closed formula is presented for the prediction of such resonant frequencies. Sensitivity analyses are also performed in order to investigate the impact of the solder mask layer and the differential microstrip geometry on the cancellation frequency. Read full article..

Signal Integrity (SI) analysis with CST PCB STUDIO™

Signal Integrity (SI) analysis with CST PCB STUDIO™
This article highlights the modeling and simulation of signal integrity effects with CST PCB STUDIO™ (CST PCBS). It explains how the technology (layer stackup) can be determined and which modeling options are available. Since SI investigations require significant driver and receiver models, so-called IBIS models are used for the simulation. IBIS is short for I/O Buffer Information Specification and a standard used by many IC manufacturers. Using IBIS models avoids having to creating handmade loads in the schematic and therefore eases the simulation setup process and automatically increases accuracy. Read full article..

Crosstalk effects of shielded twisted pairs

Crosstalk effects of shielded twisted pairs
This article deals with the modeling and simulation of shielded twisted pairs with CST CABLE STUDIO™. The quality of braided shields is investigated with respect to perfect solid shields. Crosstalk effects are calculated for unshielded twisted pairs, poorly shielded twisted pairs, and twisted pairs with high-quality shields. Explanations are given for the set up of realistic simulations in order to be able to compare them with measurement results. Read full article..

3D Full Wave Cross-Talk Simulation of Multilayer PCB

3D Full Wave Cross-Talk Simulation of Multilayer PCB
The actual trend in the silicon industry toward higher levels of integration generates chips with densities of tens of millions of transistors. As a consequence, the signal switching frequency in modem digital equipment is beyond the gigahertz range. When the bandwidth requirement increases, the electrical properties of the interconnections affect and limit the integrity of the traveling digital signals. These phenomena also have an impact on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance of the system since corrupted signals can easily increase the unwanted electromagnetic interference (EMI). This article summaries the simulations and measurement carried out using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® on a multilayered PCB. Read full article..

Simulation of Mobile Phone Antenna Performance

Simulation of Mobile Phone Antenna Performance
The telecommunications sector is making great advances aimed at delivering an even stream of high tech devices, covering the significant consumer demands in this sector. EM simulation is increasingly becoming an indispensable tool in the design flow, not only on the antenna level but also on the phone and environmental levels. This article compares simulated results with measurements for several steps in the phone design chain. Read full article..

Power Integrity Simulation for High Speed Board using CST PCBS

Power Integrity Simulation for High Speed Board using CST PCBS
Power Integrity simulation for a high speed board, PCI-Express. using CST PCBS is shown here. The first simulation is the static power integrity simulation, known as IR-Drop. The second simulation is the high freq. power integrity simulation, whereas the decoupling capacitors are also taken into account to reduce the impedance of the board. Read full article..

Optimization of a small wideband Antenna using CST and Mode Frontier

Optimization of a small wideband Antenna using CST and Mode Frontier Document type
Yael Kaldor, Rafael This work describes the simulation and optimization processes of a small antenna located on a large platform. (The platform size is 13? x 3? x 3?). The required antenna frequency performance is wideband and it is required to perform under severe environmental conditions. The antenna structure was modeled and simulated using CST (MWS) for return Loss and Radiation Pattern performance. The antenna model was parameterized to allow future optimization. The Return Loss specification for the Antenna was -8 dB maximum (VSWR 2.2:1) over a 30% bandwidth. Simulated Return Loss was initially poor over the full frequency range (sufficient performance was obtained over 6% bandwidth only). See Figure 1. The Antenna model was optimized using Mode Frontier for Return Loss performance over the full frequency range. The optimization results are depicted in Figure 2. The Return loss and VSWR performance were highly improved using the optimization process. 34% bandwidth was obtained. Read full article..

Calibration of Probes for EMC Near-Field Scanning

Calibration of Probes for EMC Near-Field Scanning Document type
Matthias Spang, University Erlangen-Nuremberg In order to carry out near-field scans of printed circuit boards for EMC investigations, knowledge of the electric and magnetic fields above various calibration boards is necessary. CST Microwave Studio’s transient solver is therefore employed to calculate the near-field patterns on a scanning plane above various microstrip structures. After a spatial 2D-Fourier-transformation, the field values and the measured probe output signals are used to determine the field probe’s receiving characteristics. The results of this calibration process are then verified by applying them on further field measurements with the probe above another microstrip structure and comparing the obtained field strengths with respective simulations again. To obtain a high spatial field resolution, roughly 2.5 million meshcells are used. The frequency band of interest extends from 1MHz up to 3GHz so that great importance is attached to sufficient energy decay. Read full article..

An efficient approach for wide angle scattering analysis of TT&C antennas on satellite

An efficient approach for wide angle scattering analysis of TT&C antennas on satellite Document type
Marcello Zolesi, Thales Alenia Space The scope of the present work is to analyze the effective coverage of TT&C subsystem of a LEO satellite at an altitude of 700 kilometres. The antenna assembly is made of two units, Main and Fill-In Antennas, accommodated on opposite sides of the spacecraft. Starting from the free-space radiation performance of each of the two antennas, the problem to predict the global TT&C subsystem radiation pattern in presence of the spacecraft is treated in order to identify potential blind areas or interferences caused by the neighbouring structures. The prediction of electromagnetic field scattered in complex environment is usually a hard task since the solution cannot generally be expressed in a simple and/or closed analytical form. Therefore a variety of numerical methods have been developed in literature. The effectiveness of a single method depends on the type of the electromagnetic environment and the working frequencies. The calculations of the global TT&C subsystem radiation pattern in presence of the main spacecraft structures are carried out by means a full-wave electromagnetic software, CST Microwave Studio Integral Solver. The Integral Solver is ideally suited for electrically large structures respect to the wavelength, when dominated by electrical conductors. This solver uses a combination of an open boundary integral formulation and a Multilevel Fast Multi-Pole Method (MLFMM) exhibiting an optimal complexity in terms of memory and simulation time compared to the traditional Method of Moment (MoM). Key-words: Coverage, EIRP, MLFMM, MoM, TT&C antennas. Read full article..

Environment-Independent Miniature Antennas

Environment-Independent Miniature Antennas Document type
Hubregt J. Visser, PhD, Holst Centre – IMEC-NL Antennas, when brought into close proximity with RF reflective objects or lossy human tissue, will show a degradation in performance. This degradation is visible in the input impedance as a function of frequency and in the radiation pattern, gain and efficiency. In the presentation we will show two examples of miniature antennas designed for on-body use that exhibit a negligible performance degradation when brought near or onto the human body. One of the examples comprises a miniature, curved microstrip patch antenna for application on the wrist, see Figure 1. Here, the ground plane of the patch antenna has been used to form a shielding between antenna and environment. The other example is a CPW printed monopole antenna, embedded in a low-loss dielectric body to contain the fields and thus minimize reactive tuning, see Figure 2. Furthermore the short ground plane of this antenna has been modified to suppress coaxial cable current radiation. In the designs, the human body has been modeled as a curved, layered medium consisting of skin, fat, muscle, bone and, when appropriate, dura, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue. The CSTMWS designs, the realized prototypes and the measurement results will be presented. Figure 1: Curved microstrip patch antenna for use on the wrist. Figure 2: Printed monopole antenna in proximity to the human body. Read full article..

Power Rating Simulation of the new QNS connector generation

Power Rating Simulation of the new QNS connector generation
IMS Connector Systems is an international, technology driven company specialized in development and production of high frequency connections. The product range includes a large assortment of coaxial RF connectors, coaxial cable assemblies, RF test switches, RF antenna switches, test adapters and test assemblies, battery contacts as well as antennas for mobile devices. Application and Simulation using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® and CST EM STUDIO™ by Roland Baur, IMS Connector Systems, Löffingen, Germany Read full article..

3D EM Simulation in the Design Flow of High-Speed Multi-Pin Connectors

3D EM Simulation in the Design Flow of High-Speed Multi-Pin Connectors
This article describes the design flow for a high speed connector using different simulation tools. The goal is to enable a first pass design without time-intensive and costly iteration steps. In addition to other simulation tools, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) is used during different stages of the design process to find fundamental design parameters and to predict the behaviour of a complete telecommunication system. Read full article..

Advanced Modelling and Measurement of Wideband Horn Antennas

Advanced Modelling and Measurement of Wideband Horn Antennas
This paper presents the excellent correlation of measurement results to the numerical calculations of a SATIMO dual-ridge horn antenna which include the directivity, boresight gain, and return loss vs. frequency. The structure is electrically large which lends itself, as a result of its efficient memory utilisation, to the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) Time Domain Solver. Broadband, high resolution gain results can be obtained within a single run with as many as 100 farfield monitors being defined. The results are presented with the courtesy and permission of SATIMO, Italy. Read full article..

Using CST MWS for Signal Integrity problems

Using CST MWS for Signal Integrity problems
This article is concerned with the important issue of Signal Integrity and the application of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® to the investigation of the characterisation of an SMA connector on a multi-layer PCB. Read full article..

Design and simulation of a novel slow-wave structure for THz applications

Design and simulation of a novel slow-wave structure for THz applications
The development of slow-wave structures for generation in the terahertz regime is a popular ongoing area of research. This article presents the design and simulation of a novel 'quasi-parallel-plate' slow-wave structure to be used in Backward-Wave Oscillators (BWOs) operating at this regime. Read full article..

The use of CST Microwave Studio in the Design of an X-Band Circularly Polarised Splashplate Antenna

The use of CST Microwave Studio in the Design of an X-Band Circularly Polarised Splashplate Antenna Document type
Richard Roberts, Astrium Ltd This presentation describes how CST Microwave Studio (MWS) has been used in conjunction with POS 5 and GRASP 8 to design an X-Band circularly polarised Splashplate Antenna. The antenna essentially consists of a centre fed reflector (17 wavelengths in diameter), the Splashplate feed (~2 wavelengths in diameter), and a septum polariser to allow the Tx and Rx bands to operate in opposite polarisations. A significant factor in the design is that a short circuit had to be assumed at the other port of the septum polariser meaning that the return loss of the Splashplate feed and the reflector were critical to the axial ratio performance. CST MWS enabled this aspect of the design to be modelled and analysed using the T-solver. Comparison of the measured and predicted antenna performance has validated the design process. Although a compliant performance has been achieved, it is evident that some modelling improvements could be sought in order to get a better convergence between prediction and measurement. Read full article..

On the determination of the impulse response of Ultra-wideband antennas

On the determination of the impulse response of Ultra-wideband antennas Document type
Sebastian Sczyslo, Gunnar Armbrecht, Holger Thye, Sven Dortmund, Thomas Kaiser, Leibniz Universität Hannover This contribution deals with the accurate determination of the impulse response of Ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas both by simulation and measurement. As can be found in recent literature, knowledge about the impulse response does not only allow for the derivation of further antenna parameters such as gain or group delay, but also to design more efficient receivers and to run more realistic simulations. Here we will exemplarily use the cone antenna as the antenna under test (AUT), as this is a very prominent antenna type in the field of UWB. In the first part CST Microwave Studio (CST MWS) is used to model and simulate the antenna in the transmit case. To extract the radiated E-Field, we developed a new macro based on the transient broadband farfield monitor. Applying this macro is time-saving compared to the conventional method using farfield probes which can be found in many publications. The transmit impulse response is determined by a deconvolution operation. Finally Lorentz reciprocity is used to evaluate the receive impulse response as it is common in literature. In the second part the obtained simulation results from CST MWS will be compared to measurement results. At this we will not only use the conventional two-antenna method but we will also introduce the GTEM method, as a fast and accurate antenna measurement method. We developed this novel method based upon our previous research in the field of GTEM cells and it allows for a direct determination of the receive impulse response using a single antenna only. Read full article..

Long Range Connector Via Coupling Effects for High Speed Signals

Long Range Connector Via Coupling Effects for High Speed Signals Document type
Thomas-Michael Winkel, Roland Frech, IBM Entwicklungs GmbH Thomas Gneiting, AdMOS GmbH The interface between a multi pin connector and the printed circuit board is a critical part of the signal path in high speed digital systems like mainframe computers. Long range via coupling effects are analysed for connectors with a huge signal count and high speed signals using CST Microwave Studio simulations. A realistic cross section of the printed circuit board with a mixture of ground and voltage layers have been taken into account. It was possible to understand the reason for this behaviour by analyzing the field distributions during the signal propagation inside the printed circuit board. A further important result was the calculation of the magnitude of the distortions to judge their impact on the signal integrity of a complete system. Finally, the long range crosstalk effect was verified with time domain measurements on a specially designed test card system. Read full article..

Designing a Band Notch Filter for a UWB Antenna Using CST MWS

Designing a Band Notch Filter for a UWB Antenna Using CST MWS Document type
Ad Reniers, Technical University Eindhoven High-data-rate wireless communications need wide bandwidths. In the Ultra-Wideband (UWB) frequency band from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, information may be spread over a large bandwidth at low power levels thus creating the possibility to share the spectrum with other users. To prevent interference with existing wireless systems, like IEEE 802.11a WLAN, stop band characteristics are required from 5 GHz to 6 GHz*. The notch filter function is designed in a low-cost circular planar dipole antenna based on the ‘two-penny’ dipole. To achieve the required specifications for this notch function we used first the CST optimizer. After that we optimized systematic the design. In this presentation we want to show the results of both approaches to achieve a maximum result and try to understand the working of this notch and spur function in this compact UWB antenna. * Paper: Low-cost, compact UWB antenna with frequency band-notch function. H.J. Visser. Read full article..

Microfabricated Folded Waveguide for Broadband Traveling Wave Tube Application

Microfabricated Folded Waveguide for Broadband Traveling Wave Tube Application
Microfabrication becomes also in the vacuum tube community more and more popular. The reason is the need for miniaturization when going to higher frequencies. Circuits created by conventional fabrication techniques are not robust enough. Therefore a microfabricated folded waveguide for 220GHz has been designed and analysed by means of 3D simulation using the Particle in Cell (PIC) solver of CST PARTICLE STUDIO®. Read full article..

TLM Simulation of Human Exposure to 400MHz Electromagnetic Fields Inside a Car

TLM Simulation of Human Exposure to 400MHz Electromagnetic Fields Inside a Car Document type
Transmitters used in vehicle environments present potential threats to the health and safety of vehicle users, in terms of both human exposure to electromagnetic fields and vehicle EMC (electromagnetic compatibility). The recently revised automotive EMC directive (2004/104/EC) now requires vehicle manufacturers to identify acceptable frequencies, powers and antenna installations that can be used on vehicles without compromising their EMC performance. The simulations presented here were performed with CST MICROSTRIPES™. Read full article..

Mobile Phone Simulations with Human Head and Hand Models

Mobile Phone Simulations with Human Head and Hand Models
Human head models like the SAM phantom are already regularly used to test the influence on mobile phone performance as well as to check the compliance to SAR standards. However, the hand also influences the field distribution significantly. The following article shows the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) simulation results of a complete Sony Ericsson mobile phone in relation to head and hand phantoms. Read full article..

RFID Reader-Coil, 13.56 MHz

RFID Reader-Coil, 13.56 MHz
Radio Frequency Identification Systems (RFID) are widely used and allow advanced solutions for a variety of applications in the area of authentication, ticketing, access control, supply management, parking, payment, vending,etc. The example presented here is a RFID Readercoil "P81" from Legic Ident Systems and was modeled and solved using the frequency domain solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS). The sensitivity of the computed complex input impedance with respect to substrate tolerances is computed and was compared to measurement data. Read full article..

Six-Pole Band-pass filter with Single Cross-Coupling

Six-Pole Band-pass filter with Single Cross-Coupling
Tuning of a coupled-resonator filter is performed in this article by using the group delay response of the input reflection coefficient of sequentially tuned resonators containing all the information necessary to design and tune filters. To achieve high out-of-band rejection losses a single transmission zero is introduced producing a pair of finite frequency poles. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is used to optimize and/or tune the bandpass filter resonse in a complete model by applying the new, fast MOR-Frequency Domain Solver. To speed-up the tuning process the entire model is split up into several sections and recombined in CST DESIGN STUDIO™ to get the overall filter response. Read full article..

Antenna and Propagation Simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE and WinProp

Antenna and Propagation Simulation with CST STUDIO SUITE and WinProp Document type
This Application Note describes how the CST® STUDIO SUITE® software package can be linked to WinProp to simulate the radiation characteristics of an antenna and its performance in a complex indoor or outdoor environment. The full-wave 3D solvers in CST STUDIO SUITE are used to the design and simulation of the antenna itself, while the wave propagation methods in WinProp use the calculated radiation pattern to calculate coverage in an electrically large environment. Read full article..

Theory and applications of MIMO in radar systems

Theory and applications of MIMO in radar systems Document type
J. Guerci , Consultant, VA, USA. Video of a webinar presentation(Running time: 33 min) Read full article..

Introduction to MIMO and its advantages for mitigating multipath in wireless deployments

Introduction to MIMO and its advantages for mitigating multipath in wireless deployments Document type
K. Carrigan, Senior Systems Engineer, U.S. Navy (NSWC Dahlgren), & D. Johns, CST of America. Video of a webinar presentation (Running time: 32 min). Read full article..

EMI from Multi-Gigabit SerDes Differential Pairs

EMI from Multi-Gigabit SerDes Differential Pairs Document type
P. Sochoux, Cisco Video of an Innovations 2009 workshop series presentation. Read full article..

Applications of 3D Electromagnetic Modeling in Magnetic Recording: ESD and Signal Integrity

Applications of 3D Electromagnetic Modeling in Magnetic Recording: ESD and Signal Integrity Document type
John Contreras and Al Wallash, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, presentation at the 5th North American Userforum, 2008. Read full article..

GSM/DCS Dual Antenna Switch Module (ASM)

GSM/DCS Dual Antenna Switch Module (ASM)
This structure for mobile communication in LTCC technology combines a diplexer for the GSM and DCS frequency bands with a low pass filter for each band. Read full article..

High gain antennas based on FSSs and AMCs

High gain antennas based on FSSs and AMCs Document type
High gain antennas based on FSSs and AMCs Read full article..

EMI Simulation for DC-DC Booster Converter Circuit (In Korean)

EMI Simulation for DC-DC Booster Converter Circuit (In Korean) Document type
Modeling a DC-DC Booster Converter for EMI noise source modeling Read full article..

Heat Sink Design Flow for EMC

Heat Sink Design Flow for EMC Document type
Heatsinks are large conductive objects which are typically ungrounded and placed above ASICs or other ICs. They may pickup and enhance radiation. With today's SerDes line rates, wavelength sizes in the system are now comparable to heatsink sizes. A design flow is proposed that will allow quick and systematic simulations of heatsink for EMI. Read full article..

Electrostatic Discharge Modelling

Electrostatic Discharge Modelling
This article describes how CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® may be used for performing simulative tests of the immunity of devices to electrostatic discharge (ESD). A user defined input signal may be combined with an optimised model geometry to closely model the behaviour of a real ESD generator. Read full article..

Ultra-Wide-Band Printed Circular Dipole Antenna

Ultra-Wide-Band Printed Circular Dipole Antenna
A UWB dipole antenna composed of circular arms containing a special feeding system is modeled simulated using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®, the results of which are presented in this article. The design, developed by IETR-INSA / Thomson R&D France, shows good broadband matching (3-10 GHz) and an omnidiectional radiation pattern up to 6 GHz. Read full article..

Multiple Band-Notched Planar Monopole UWB Antenna

Multiple Band-Notched Planar Monopole UWB Antenna
A multiple band-notched planar monopole antenna for multiband wireless systems is presented. The proposed antenna consists of a wideband planar monopole Antenna and the multiple U-shape slots, producing band-notched characteristics. This technique is suitable for creating ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna with narrow frequency notches or for creating multiband antennas. Various antenna configurations were simulated with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. Read full article..

Transient Co-Simulation of a Hybrid Ring Mixer with Matching Network

Transient Co-Simulation of a Hybrid Ring Mixer with Matching Network
This article demonstrates a strong feature of CST STUDIO SUITE™: Co-Simulation of a hybrid mixer with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) and CST DESIGN STUDIO™ (CST DS). A full 3D model is simulated and matched to a network using the in-built circuit simulator. Measured results compare well to the simulated results. Read full article..

Phase Center Computation of a Corrugated Horn

Phase Center Computation of a Corrugated Horn
For a customer given corrugated horn the phase center has been computed using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® and compared with measurement data. The simulated results are in very good agreement with measurements. Measurements were provided with courtesy and permission of Kathrein Werk KG, Rosenheim, Germany. Read full article..

RJ45 Interconnect Signal Integrity

RJ45 Interconnect Signal Integrity
An RJ45 connector model, imported from Pro/E®, is simulated in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The time domain waveforms are compared to TDR measurements. Model and results courtesy of North East Systems Associates (NESA). Read full article..

Ferrite-loaded waveguide antenna

Ferrite-loaded waveguide antenna
The behaviour of a ferrite loaded waveguide antenna is predicted first by a 2D-analytical model and second by CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The results of the predictions are compared with measurements. (Courtesy and permission of KAIST Korea.) Read full article..

Modeling and Measurement of Shielding Enclosures

Modeling and Measurement of Shielding Enclosures
The shielding effectiveness (SE) of an enclosure has been simulated by using the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) and then compared to measurement from a known reference case. Read full article..

A Unit Cell Model of a Single Periodic Waveguide Phased-Array Antenna

A Unit Cell Model of a Single Periodic Waveguide Phased-Array Antenna
In this article a single periodic open-ended waveguide phased-array antenna with a dielectric radome at its aperture of variable thickness is analysed. As a verification it is shown that the superposition of two independent plane waves shows the same field pattern as the one created by the unit cell model. Read full article..

A Small, Efficient, Linear-polarized Omni-directional Antenna

A Small, Efficient, Linear-polarized Omni-directional Antenna
Nearly full-sized performance from a spherical coil only 1/6th as long in the E-plane normal direction as a half-wave dipole antenna. Read full article..

A Dual-Mode Conical Horn Antenna for Rotationally Symmetric Beam

A Dual-Mode Conical Horn Antenna for Rotationally Symmetric Beam
CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® has been succesfully applied to the simulation of a wide-band dual-mode horn antenna which exhibits a rotationally symmetric beam and low side-lobe levels. Read full article..

Magnetron and Microwave Oven Design to Solve Wi-Fi - Interference Issues

Magnetron and Microwave Oven Design to Solve Wi-Fi - Interference Issues
This article describes how the different modules of CST STUDIO SUITE® can be used to aid the complete path of a magnetron and microwave oven design. Starting from the analysis of the interaction region in CST PARTICLE STUDIO®, continuing with the electrostatic and magnetostaic field evaluation in CST EM STUDIO®, further evaluating the field distributions inside the oven in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® and finally leading to a temperature and deformation investigation in CST MPHYSICS STUDIO®. Read full article..

Antenna Placement on a Box

Antenna Placement on a Box
In this article the new I! Solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is used to calculate the input impedance of a monopole antenna on a conducting box. This simple example demonstrates the accuracy of the Integral Equation Solver. Geometry and results are from the paper "The Input Impedance of a Monopole Antenna Mounted on a Cubical Conducting Box“ by Shyamal Bhattacharya, Stuart A. Long, Donald R. Wilton. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. AP 35, No. 7, July 1987. The Read full article..

Simulation of a compact antenna

Simulation of a compact antenna
This article demonstrates the simulation of an electrically large antenna. The design and numerical results are courtesy and permission of Chelton Antennas, France. The antenna operates at 8 GHz and was simulated using the CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® Transient Solver which is, as a result of its efficient memory scaling, ideal for such electrically large structures - the dish diameter in this example is approximately 20 wavelengths in size. Read full article..

Microstrip Bandstop and Lowpass Filters

Microstrip Bandstop and Lowpass Filters
New, compact configurations for RF/microwave bandstop and lowpass filters are presented. Compact footprints are achieved by folding the transmission lines in a microstrip platform. The effect of mutual coupling between the transmission lines, curved line sections, interconnecting lengths of the sections are taken into account to obtain the network parameters for the folded line filters. The folded line filters have practical dimensions for a wide range of electrical specifications, making physical implementation realizable. The filter designs have been validated by using full wave 3D EM simulation using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®, as well as by comparison with the measurements. The new designs presented should prove useful for a host of embedded passive and RFIC applications in the 1-10 GHz range. Read full article..

Conductor Backed Coplanar Wave Guide

Conductor Backed Coplanar Wave Guide
This example shows the simulation of a conductor backed coplanar waveguide with a ground via fence for reducing EMI radiation. The excellent agreement between simulation and simulated results can be observed. Read full article..

Five-Section Microstrip Hairpin-Filter

Five-Section Microstrip Hairpin-Filter
The example design is a classic hairpin filter with a bandwidth of 3.6 to 4.3 GHz. The hairpin filter was designed for a return loss better than -20dB across the band. CST DESIGN STUDIO™ was used to design and tune the filter, the resulting layout was then verfied with the 3D- EM simulation software CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. Read full article..

Printed Dipole Antenna with Integrated Balun

Printed Dipole Antenna with Integrated Balun
This note shows simulation results for a printed Dipole Antenna with integrated Balun. The design is based on the article "3-D FDTD Design Analysis of a 2.4-GHz Polarization-Diversity Printed Dipole Antenna With Integrated Balun and Polarization-Switching Circuit for WLAN and Wireless Communication Applications" by Huey-Ru Chuang, and Liang-Chen Kuo, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 51, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2003 Read full article..

Cavity Modes in a Shielding Enclosure

Cavity Modes in a Shielding Enclosure
Ms. Lis box: This shielding enclosure shows electromagnetic interference (EMI) from a slot, caused by the coupling of the internal source with cavity modes. Read full article..

Modal Analysis of a Dielectric 2 Port Filter

Modal Analysis of a Dielectric 2 Port Filter
Shown is the discretised model of a dielectric two circuit filter with coaxial input and output couplers. Read full article..

Benchmark MEE 1997

Benchmark  MEE  1997
The dual mode filter was developed, measured, and simulated by ESA (European Space Agency). Read full article..

Vivaldi Antenna

Vivaldi Antenna
Microwave Engineering Europe's (MWEE) EM simulation benchmark has become quite a tradition over the last few years, enticing some of the best known software providers to put their diverse simulation methods to the test. Read full article..

Pillbox Antenna

Pillbox Antenna
This huge Pillbox Antenna was optimised by one of our customers even during the evaluation period of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Read full article..

EMC Simulation in the Design Flow of Modern Electronics

EMC Simulation in the Design Flow of Modern Electronics
In the design process of modern electronics, every product development starts with a schematic and ends with the physical implementation of the device, typically done in copper. Along the way to converting the schematic into a real existing layout however, the designer can fall into numerous possible pitfalls in terms of the EMC performance. In this webinar we will show several examples of EMC countermeasures in modern electronics and good practices for implementing them, as well as highlighting some common mistakes. We will also demonstrate how simulation can predict the EMC performance of typical components like PCBs, enclosures and cables, and compare the simulation results to measurements performed on physical implementations of the structures. Read full article..

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