Energy

Right now, the energy industry is undergoing great changes. Innovative energy sources and revolutions in generation and transmission are giving rise to a whole host of new technologies. Simulation is a key part of the process of implementing these technologies and bringing them into commercial production.

The combination of low-frequency and high-frequency solvers in CST STUDIO SUITE® means that it is well suited to a wide range of design challenges relating to energy generation and transmission. CST EM STUDIO® can be used to simulate electrostatic or stationary current problems; for example, the performance of an insulator or the behavior of a connector under load. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® on the other hand is well suited to high-frequency and transient effects, such as electrostatic discharge and lightning strikes. CST products have been used to simulate devices ranging from solar cells and generators for wind and wave turbines to generators, brushings and high-voltage switchgears.

Energy

All Articles

Designing Building Structures for Protection against EMP and Lightning

Designing Building Structures for Protection against EMP and Lightning
This article will explore the use of electromagnetic simulation when hardening facilities against EMP and lightning. EMP is a high-intensity burst of electromagnetic energy that can potentially cause major disruption to vital infrastructure such as telecommunications, electrical power, banking and finance, emergency services, medical facilities, transportation, food and water supply. Lightning can cause significant damage by directly striking a building, when metallic structures such as electrical wiring provide return current flow in an attempt to equalize potentials. It is therefore essential to protect or “harden” critical facilities by stringent electromagnetic design, including shielding to block incident EMP fields, careful treatment of points of entry (POE) and diversion of lightning currents using down-conductors. This article shows how a simulation of the performance of EMP protection measures at the point of entry, such as filtering and clamping, can be set up and carried out. The simulation of a lightning strike to a building structure is also demonstrated, to show how the induced current return paths can be visualized in order to characterize the possible effect of the lightning strike on systems inside the building. This includes an investigation of cable system positioning inside the building and the prediction of induced shield and internal load currents and the analysis of lightning protection system (LPS), taking into account the effect of down-conductor type and grounding impedance. Read full article..

Designing Building Structures for Protection against EMP and Lightning

Designing Building Structures for Protection against EMP and Lightning
We will explore the application of CST STUDIO SUITE® to the simulation of EMP and lightning effects. Simulation will be used to analyze the shielding effectiveness of a building structure, evaluate the impact of adding personnel entryways and utility pipes and predict the transient currents induced in cable systems. The performance of EMP protection measures at the point of entry, such as filtering and clamping, will be assessed. We will simulate a lightning strike to a building structure and visualize the induced current return paths. A lightning protection system (LPS) will be analyzed including the effect of down-conductor type and grounding impedance. Different positions of cable systems inside the building will be simulated and the induced shield and internal load currents predicted. Read full article..

State-Space modeling and simulation of a saturated core fault current limiter

State-Space modeling and simulation of a saturated core fault current limiter
This article demonstrates the ability in CST EM STUDIO® to simulate a fault current limiter. Two methods are shown, one based on a direct transient simulation at EM solver level, the other on the generation of a non-linear equivalent circuit from FE magnetostatic simulation results. The equivalent circuit, ECE, in this case is exported for use in Synopsys® Saber. In both simulations, the assumption has been made that the core is laminated and, as a result, eddy currents are suppressed. Such equivalent circuits are straightfoward to generate and are extremely efficient for use in circuit- and system-Level simulation. In large and complex power systems, a number of ECEs of system components such as transformers, generators and current limiters. Read full article..

Siemens Energy Optimises Power Transformers with the Aid of 3D EM Simulation

Siemens Energy Optimises Power Transformers with the Aid of 3D EM Simulation Document type
Finding customised solutions for any applications and specifications of transformers – this is the task of Siemens Energy T TR PN. It is difficult to obtain off-the-shelf solutions for furnace and converter transformers as well as transformers for High Voltage Direct Current for ratings greater than 200 MVA. 3D EM Simulation with CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) is a vital tool in the optimisation process of transformer installations. Read full article..

Eddy current and proximity effect - The jumping ring experiment

Eddy current and proximity effect - The jumping ring experiment
This article serves to demonstrate the ability to take into account skin and proximity effects in conducting coils. A simple model of the jumping ring experiment is taken for this purpose but the principles involved can be applied to more complex problems. Quantities such as induced voltages, self and mutual inductances can be calculated in the CST EM STUDIO® low frequency eddy current solver. Read full article..

Dielectric breakdown simulations of a transformer On-Load Tap Changer

Dielectric breakdown simulations of a transformer On-Load Tap Changer
Leading manufacturers of Transformer On-Load Tap Changers (OLTC) ensure quality and secure functionality of their products by a high amount of physical tests. However, these tests are not performed in the environment of a transformer, i.e. not in a built-in situation and without connected tap-leads. The system as a whole transformer/OLTC/tap-leads) is finally tested in the transformer plant. The effect of the transformer and the tap-leads on the dielectric field strength may be investigated with the application of the CST EM STUDIO® electrostatic field solver. Read full article..

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure Document type
CST STUDIO SUITE 2016 is the culmination of years of research and development into finding the most accurate and efficient computational solutions for lectromagnetic (EM) designs. From static to optical, and from the nanoscale to the electrically large, CST STUDIO SUITE includes tools for the design, simulation and optimization of a wide range of devices. Analysis is not limited to purely EM effects, but can also include thermal and mechanical effects and circuit simulation. Read full article..

Advanced modeling and optimization of electrode geometry in power engineering equipment

Advanced modeling and optimization of electrode geometry in power engineering equipment
CST EM STUDIO® has a myriad of features which facilitates the generation of complex geometries, accurate results and rapid simulation. Most complex geometries are imported into CST EMS via its integrated CAD Interface but in the case of optimization, it may be better to create the object in EMS itself even for such complex components. An example of an optimization task is the geometry of an electrode as found in switchgear. Even if the final optimized geometry is difficult to manufacture, some insight can be gained by optimization. The electrostatic solver was used to calculate the electric field. Read full article..

Breakdown analysis of a power transformer terminal lead

Breakdown analysis of a power transformer terminal lead
For dielectric breakdown analysis, a common procedure is applied which is based on obtaining the field data from FE electrostatic field analyses. An example is given of the simulation of the terminal lead of a typical power engineering transformer using CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS). The model was provided by Dr. Beriz Bakija, Siemens Transformers, Nuremberg, Germany. Read full article..

Electromagnetic simulation of a low voltage industrial circuit breaker

Electromagnetic simulation of a low voltage industrial circuit breaker
This article demonstrates the workflow for the CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) electromagnetic simulation of a circuit breaker in domestic and industrial applications. A CATIA model is imported and parameters attributed to moving parts to facilitate parameter and optimisation simulations. Model courtesy of BTicino SpA, Italy. Read full article..

Coupled EM-Thermal Modeling of Power Chokes

Coupled EM-Thermal Modeling of Power Chokes
Power chokes are used together with inverters (e.g. solar inverters) to reduce EMC issues. CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) can be used to calculate the electric losses in the choke winding of a power choke, and these losses can be used as a heat source to simulate temperature distributions using the thermal solvers in CST MPHYSICS® STUDIO (CST MPS). Read full article..

Electrostatic simulation of a 24 kV SF6 gas insulated ring-main unit load break switch

Electrostatic simulation of a 24 kV SF6 gas insulated ring-main unit load break switch
This article is concerned with the features required for a 3D electrostatic computation, using CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) of a power engineering application for which a medium voltage SF6 main ring unit load break switch manufactured by ABB Distribution, Skien, Norway [1] has been taken. A CAD model of the equipment was provided with the permission and courtesy of ABB, Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland. Electrostatic simulations are used to indicate the locations of critical spots where discharges may occur. For such an analysis, workflow and accuracy are essential requirements. Read full article..

A 3-Phase Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Generator for Marine Applications

A 3-Phase Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Generator for Marine Applications Document type
This article is concerned with the application of CST EMS to the design and analysis of a tubular permanent magnet linear generator. Demonstrated is the proposal of a possible application of tubular generator, the analysis of a system definition in order to define a first optimization criteria and 3D electromagnetic simulation based on finite inegration method to carry out a parametric analysis of the machine behavior. This is a summary of the work carried out by Andrea Pirisi, G. Gruosso, Riccardo E. Zich of the Politecnico di Milano, Italy. Read full article..

Siemens Energy optimises power transformers with the aid of 3D EM Simulation

Siemens Energy optimises power transformers with the aid of 3D EM Simulation
Finding customised solutions for any applications and specifications of transformers – this is the task of Siemens Energy T TR PN. It is difficult to obtain off-the-shelf solutions for furnace and converter transformers as well as transformers for High Voltage Direct Current for ratings greater than 200 MVA. 3D EM Simulation with CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) is a vital tool in the optimisation process of transformer installations. Siemens Energy optimises power transformers with the aid of 3D EM Simulation Read full article..

3D Non-linear Transient Simulation of an SF6 550 kV 3-Phase Gas Insulated Bus

3D Non-linear Transient Simulation of an SF6 550 kV 3-Phase Gas Insulated Bus
The combination of non-linear materials and eddy currents leads to a problem which cannot be solved with a steady-state eddy current solver. A transient solver is required and and inherently includes the feature that arbitrary time signals can be used for the excitation. The CST EM STUDIO® (CST EMS) transient solver allows such a simulation to be carried out. In this case, a Gas insulated Bus under short circuit conditions is investigated. The forces and losses on the bus bars can be calculated as a function of time. Read full article..

Low frequency simulation of a Gas Insulated Switchgear

Low frequency simulation of a Gas Insulated Switchgear
The simulation of a gas insulated switch at 50 Hz is simulated with the low frequency solver in CST EM STUDIO™ (CST EMS). A Pro/E® model is imported, appropriate three-phased sources defined and a simulation performed to obtain the current distributions in the three phase conductors. Read full article..

Electroquasistatic Simulation of a High Voltage Insulator

Electroquasistatic Simulation of a High Voltage Insulator
This article demonstrates the application of the CST EM STUDIO™ (CST EMS) electroquasistatic (EQS) solver to the simulation of a high voltage insulator. It also demonstrates the difference between the results obtained from the EQS Solver and Electro-Static Solver. Read full article..

Electrostatic Simulation of a High Voltage Bushing

Electrostatic Simulation of a High Voltage Bushing
This example shows the simulation of a high voltage transformer bushing using CST EM STUDIO™'s Electrostatic solver. Read full article..

Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with periodic Nano-Structures

Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with periodic Nano-Structures
This article summarises the simulation study conducted with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) of thin-film silicon solar cells with nano-structured interfaces. The good agreement between the experimental data and solar cell simulations shows the reliability and versatility of the performed FIT simulations to investigate nano-optics of thin-film solar cell devices in 3 dimensions. This article is presented with the courtesy and permission of Hasse, C. and Stiebig, H. , Forschungszentrum Juelich who gave a presentation of their work at the CST European User group Meeting at Boppard, Germany, 9-10th March 2006. Read full article..

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