Fundamental Research

Researchers on the cutting-edge have to realize big ideas on modest budgets. With CST STUDIO SUITE®, electromagnetic experiments can be simulated, often within minutes or hours, before the researcher ever enters the laboratory.

CST STUDIO SUITE® modules include a wide range of solvers suited to every frequency band, from static to optical, and scale, from a few nanometers to hundreds of meters, and contains mathematical models for simulating the behavior of a wide variety of substances, from metamaterials to plasmas, which would be expensive or impossible to produce in the lab. The parameter sweep and optimization tools allow multiple simulation runs to be carried out automatically, and researchers with access to computer clusters can speed the simulation process up further with our simulation acceleration tools.

Particle research is especially well supported by CST thanks to CST PARTICLE STUDIO®, which is tightly integrated with our other EM simulation modules. CST PARTICLE STUDIO includes a robust particle-in-cell (PIC) solver, along with particle tracking and wakefield simulation codes, to model the behavior of particles inside accelerators, particle guns and wave tubes and assist in the accelerator design and operation process.

A catalog of references documenting research carried out using CST software is available on our website.

Fundamental Research

All Articles

Optical Device Simulation Plasmonics and Nanophotonics

Optical Device Simulation Plasmonics and Nanophotonics Document type
Optical devices are already key components in many areas, such as communications, remote sensing, or medical applications, and their role will only increase in the future. Simulating such devices helps in optimizing their efficiency and in reducing cost of design and development. With its powerful solvers and user-friendly interface, CST® STUDIO SUITE® offers a unique platform for handling such challenges. Read full article..

Modeling and Simulation of Metamaterial-Based Devices for Industrial Applications

Modeling and Simulation of Metamaterial-Based Devices for Industrial Applications Document type
Metamaterials o er great potential for the development of new technologies and to make existing devices smaller, faster and more efficient. Metamaterials produce electromagnetic phenomena that are not seen in natural materials, and come in a wide variety of types. When developing a new metamaterial, simulation can be used both to analyze both the bulk property of the material and individual element. This article will show how CST STUDIO SUITE can be used to simulate and design metamaterials through the entire workfl ow, from the design of the resonator to the implementation in a full device. Read full article..

Simulation of Accelerator Components

Simulation of Accelerator Components
Simulation software can help during the complicated design process in various phases. The webinar will describe different aspects of design in which CST STUDIO SUITE® can be of interest, beginning with simple eigenmode simulations and the choice of the correct solver. Accelerator specific post-processing features are addressed as well as multiphysics approaches. A short look into magnet simulation will be also given. Last but not least, the field of particle dynamics will be shown, including multipaction and impedance analysis. The webinar will include both an introductory overview as well as new features, making it suitable for both new and long-term users. Read full article..

Efficient and Accurate Simulation of Optical Devices using CST STUDIO SUITE

Efficient and Accurate Simulation of Optical Devices using CST STUDIO SUITE
This webinar will demonstrate how CST STUDIO SUITE has been used to analyze a number of essential optical devices, such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides, photonic crystals (PC), plasmonic nanoantennas, and optical gratings. Read full article..

Modeling Metamaterials - Metamaterial Development using Electromagnetic Simulation

Modeling Metamaterials - Metamaterial Development using Electromagnetic Simulation
Metamaterials are a subject of great interest for both academia and industry, offering the ability to produce electromagnetic phenomena that are not seen in natural materials. These offer potential for new technologies and for existing devices to be made smaller, faster and more efficient. When developing a new metamaterial, simulations can be used both to analyze the bulk effects of the material and to design the individual unit cell. Read full article..

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure

CST STUDIO SUITE Brochure Document type
CST STUDIO SUITE 2016 is the culmination of years of research and development into finding the most accurate and efficient computational solutions for lectromagnetic (EM) designs. From static to optical, and from the nanoscale to the electrically large, CST STUDIO SUITE includes tools for the design, simulation and optimization of a wide range of devices. Analysis is not limited to purely EM effects, but can also include thermal and mechanical effects and circuit simulation. Read full article..

Non-Linear Simulation of a Photonic Amplifier

Non-Linear Simulation of a Photonic Amplifier
This article demonstrates the modeling of a third-order non-linear silicon-on-insulator waveguide at optical frequencies, using time-domain simulation in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. The non-linearity gives rise to degenerate four-wave mixing, allowing the waveguide to be used as a photonic amplifier. Read full article..

C-Band On-Axis Coupled Standing Wave Linear Accelerator

C-Band On-Axis Coupled Standing Wave Linear Accelerator
Linear Accelerators (Linacs) are widely employed in accelerator facilities. Linear acceleration is the method of choice for light particles as synchrotron radiation effects limit the usability of circular accelerators for these particles. Industrial applications require compact linacs for the acceleration of electrons with target energy in the range between 1 and 25 MeV. CST MWS and PS can be used to investigate the high frequency behaviour of linac structures as well as the interaction between particles and the accelerating field. Read full article..

Plasmonic Nano Antennas Simulation with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®

Plasmonic Nano Antennas Simulation with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®
This paper is based on: "Comparison of electromagnetic field solvers for the 3D analysis of plasmonic nano antennas" by Johannes Hoffmann, Christian Hafner, Patrick Leidenberger, Jan Hesselbarth, Sven Burger, Proc. SPIE Vol. 7390, pp. 73900J-73900J-11. The Field Distribution inside a 1 nm wide gap between two 80 nm diameter Gold spheres is calculated and compared to a semi analytical reference solution published in the paper. Both general purpose solvers of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® are used. The simulation results agree closely with the reference solution. Read full article..

Intelligent Representation of Anechoic Chamber Wall Cuts Electromagnetic Simulation Time 95%

Intelligent Representation of Anechoic Chamber Wall Cuts Electromagnetic Simulation Time 95%
Electromagnetic simulation of anechoic chambers is a very difficult task. Gwenaël Dun, R&D Engineer for Siepel, used a variety of different electromagnetic simulation tools to address this challenge in the past but ran into problems with both poor accuracy and long compute times. He then worked with the developers of CST MICROSTRIPES™ electromagnetic simulation software, to implement a feature that makes it possible to model the ferrite absorbers used in the chamber as a boundary condition rather than part of the computational domain. This change made it possible to increase mesh size by a factor of 15, reducing compute time by more than 95%. The simulation results provided a near-perfect match to physical testing. Read full article..

High-power microwave devices with CST STUDIO SUITE: Simulation of double-gap vircator with feedback

High-power microwave devices with CST STUDIO SUITE: Simulation of double-gap vircator with feedback Document type
Devices which generate high-power microwaves due to the interaction of electron beams with electromagnetic fields can be simulated with CST PARTICLE STUDIO® (CST PS), a package of CST STUDIO SUITE®. The fully relativistic, self-consistent particle-in-cell solver, including full space charge effects, is used to simulate a virtual cathode oscillator (vircator). The simulation aids understanding and gives insight into the physics governing the operation of the device. The general level of sensitivity of the device is evaluated for different prospective variable parameters. The ones which cause a significant variation in device operation or efficiency are then used as input for the optimizer in order to find the best parameter sets for maximum efficiency at different frequencies of interest. Read full article..

Investigating the Principles of a Dielectric Laser Accelerator

Investigating the Principles of a Dielectric Laser Accelerator
This article presents a principle investigation on dielectric laser accelerators via simulation. Read full article..

Simulation of 650 GHz Backward Wave Oscillators

Simulation of 650 GHz Backward Wave Oscillators
In this acticle the simulation of novel interdigital backward wave oscillators with CST PARTICLE STUDIO® is described. The mutual coupling of the charged particle movement and transient electromagnetic fields is taken into account by a sophisticated Particle in Cell algorithm. The resulting output power is in excellent agreement with theoretical values. Results are presented with the courtesy and permission of Teraphysics Corporation, USA. Read full article..

A Polarisation Independent Bandpass FSS

A Polarisation Independent Bandpass FSS
This application note describes the use of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® in optimising the geometry of a free standing nested annular slot type Frequency Selective Surface (FSS). An isolation of better than 20 dB between the 316.5-325.5 GHz and 349.5-358.5 frequency bands was achieved in both the TE and TM planes for a 45 degree incident plane wave, while the insertion loss was below 1 dB. Read full article..

Left-Handed Wave Propagation of a Coplanar Waveguide based on Split Ring Resonators

Left-Handed Wave Propagation of a Coplanar Waveguide based on Split Ring Resonators
Metamaterials are a new class of man-made materials that can be engineered to respond to electromagntec fields in unconventional ways. The response of a material to an EM field is described by permittivity and can be tuned in meta-materials to assume negative values. This means that the material can reverse the phase of propagating waves and are commonly referred to as left-handed materials (LHM). A famous concept of LHM -the Split Ring Resonator (SRR) consists of periodic metallic structures controlling EM-properties on a macroscopic scale. The model presented here consists of a coplanar waveguide (CPW) periodically coupled to SRRs forming a bandpass behaviour. Read full article..

Characterization of Photonic Structures with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO

Characterization of Photonic Structures with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Document type
Stefan Prorok, Hamburg University of Technology We present an overview of our current research activities in silicon photonics and thermal barrier coatings. Doing so, we will comment on how CST Microwave Studio can be used to design strip waveguides, micro ring resonators, as well as 2-D and 3-D photonic crystal structures. Particularly we will concentrate on the discussion of photonic crystal micro cavities which can be used as electro-optic modulators. It will be shown that MWS provides all the functionality to optimize and characterize optical micro cavities. The appearance of resonant modes is adjusted through eigenmode calculation of the photonic crystal waveguide modes. Time domain simulation with discrete port excitation is applied to calculate the intrinsic Q-factor of the cavity. Waveguide ports are used to model experimental conditions of excitation with strip waveguide modes. Field monitors help to understand the mechanism of energy loss from the cavity. The simulation results are compared to measurements on fabricated structures. As possible application we will show a hybrid silicon organic hetero structure cavity for GHz electro-optic modulation. Read full article..

Modeling Double Negative Materials with CST DESIGN STUDIO™

Modeling Double Negative Materials with CST DESIGN STUDIO™
This paper describes how Double Negative Materials (DNG) material can be simulated in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) by using dispersive materials. Read full article..

CST MWS Simulation of the SARAF RFQ 1.5 MeV/ nucleon proton/deuteron accelerator

CST MWS Simulation of the SARAF RFQ 1.5 MeV/ nucleon proton/deuteron accelerator Document type
J. Rodnizki, Soreq NRC - The SARAF RFQ is a four rod RFQ, operating at a frequency of 176 MHz, designed to bunch and accelerate a 4 mA deuteron/proton beam from 20 keV/nucleon DC up to 1.5 MeV/nucleon CW. Read full article..

EM Simulation of a 6.7 GHz Coaxial Bragg Reflector

EM Simulation of a 6.7 GHz Coaxial Bragg Reflector
The Bragg Reflector implemented in the coaxial technology is an example for setting up simulations of periodic structures. The simulation is performed with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® and compared to measurements. Read full article..

Photonic Crystal Simulation

Photonic Crystal Simulation
The paper demonstrates the possibilitiy to model photonic cyrystals using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®. A one dimensional periodic band-gap structure is simulated using the Transient Solver. Read full article..

Wake Field Simulation of a Collimator

Wake Field Simulation of a Collimator
The simulation of the wake field effect in a collimator can be performed using CST PARTICLE STUDIO™ (CST PS). Wake field effects are an important aspect in the design process of such linear collider components. Read full article..

CST PARTICLE STUDIO Simulation of a Depressed Collector

CST PARTICLE STUDIO Simulation of a Depressed Collector
A multi-stage depressed collector for the "Rijnhuizen" Fusion Free-Electron Maser (FEM) is simulated with CST PARTICLE STUDIO™. The results are reproduced with permission of Pulsar Physics. See also M.J. de Loos, S.B. van der Geer, Pulsar Physics, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B, Vol 139, 1997. Read full article..

CST Charged Particle Simulation Flyer

CST Charged Particle Simulation Flyer Document type
CST PARTICLE STUDIO (CST PS) is a specialist tool for the fast and accurate 3D analysis of charged particle dynamics in 3D electromagnetic fields. As a member of CST STUDIO SUITE, CST PS is fully integrated in the CST design environment, taking advantage of the standard raising user interface as well as the solver technology of our multi-purpose electromagnetic modules CST MICROWAVE STUDIO and CST EM STUDIO. Read full article..

Wake Field Simulation of a Beam Position Monitor

Wake Field Simulation of a Beam Position Monitor
This article shows how the wake field solver of CST PARTICLE STUDIO™ can be used to simulate a beam position monitor in the pick-up mode. The used beam position monitor is a quarter wavelength electrode similar to the one used in the Electron Storage Ring (ESR) of the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt. Read full article..

Electromagnetic Field Simulation of Nanometric Optical Tweezers.

Electromagnetic Field Simulation of Nanometric Optical Tweezers.
This paper shows how the frequency domain solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) can be used to calculate the near field distribution of metallic and dielectric objects at optical frequencies. This web paper is based on the publication “Theory of Nanometric Optical Tweezers” by Lukas Novotny, Randy X. Bian, and X. Sunney Xie, Physical Review Letters, Volume 79, No. 4, 28 July 1997. Read full article..

Analysis of a high efficiency reflector feed array

Analysis of a high efficiency reflector feed array
This article demonstrates the application of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) to the analysis of large reflector feed arrays. An array consisting of 19 elements was simulated but a larger array of more than 100 elements may also be simulated since the memory scaling with mesh cells in CST MWS is almost linear. The simultaneous excitation feature in CST MWS was applied to obtain farfield patterns in just a single simulation. A parameter sweep was also carried out to obtain the S-Parameters as a funtion of element feeding postion. Read full article..

Optical Ring-Coupler Simulation using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®

Optical Ring-Coupler Simulation using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO®
CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® can be succesfully applied to optical problems as shown in this example of an optical ring coupler solved up to 250 THz. Read full article..

Dichroic Filter

Dichroic Filter
The dichroic filter is an example for setting up simulations of frequency selective surfaces. The simulation is performed with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® and compared to measurements. Read full article..

Photonic Band Gap Structure for a Particle Accelerator

Photonic Band Gap Structure for a Particle Accelerator
This application has been succesfully simulated using the powerful Eigenmode Solver in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® with the aid of the Modal Analysis Module. Read full article..

Klystron Output Resonator - Particle-in-Cell (PIC) Simulation

Klystron Output Resonator - Particle-in-Cell (PIC) Simulation
This article shows the simulation of a klystron output resonator. The simulation was performed using the Particle in Cell (PIC) code of CST PARTICLE STUDIO™. The PIC code is embedded in the transient solver of CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® and benefits therefore from a mature environment. Read full article..

Plane Wave Interactions with a Dielectric Half-Space at 60 THz

Plane Wave Interactions with a Dielectric Half-Space at 60 THz
In this article, CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® is used to illuminate an infinite dielectric half-space with a uniform plane wave and the reflection and transmission quantities are obtained. This problem has an analytical solution which serves to validate the simulation. The same procedure is then applied to a more generalized geometry which lacks a known analytical solution. Read full article..

Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with periodic Nano-Structures

Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells with periodic Nano-Structures
This article summarises the simulation study conducted with CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) of thin-film silicon solar cells with nano-structured interfaces. The good agreement between the experimental data and solar cell simulations shows the reliability and versatility of the performed FIT simulations to investigate nano-optics of thin-film solar cell devices in 3 dimensions. This article is presented with the courtesy and permission of Hasse, C. and Stiebig, H. , Forschungszentrum Juelich who gave a presentation of their work at the CST European User group Meeting at Boppard, Germany, 9-10th March 2006. Read full article..

Terahertz broadband metal-dielectric near-field antenna

Terahertz broadband metal-dielectric near-field antenna
The article presents an antenna-based approach to near-field imaging and spectroscopy, which can be used for both continuous-wave and pulsed broadband electromagnetic radiation from microwave to terahertz frequencies. CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) was used to perform the simulations. Read full article..

Microwave Plasma Sources

Microwave Plasma Sources
Optimisation of Microwave Plasma Sources with the transient, frequency domain and eigenmode solvers of MAFIA. Read full article..

Consistent Charged Particle Simulation of a Pierce Gun

Consistent Charged Particle Simulation of a Pierce Gun
The pierce type gun example demonstrates the analysis of an electrically large gun configuration using CST PARTICLE STUDIO™ Read full article..

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