CST – Computer Simulation Technology

Transformer Simulation

Recording date: November 17, 2016

60 min.



Transformers are applied in a wide range of applications, from smaller transformers in small wattage power supplies up to transformer stations with some hundreds MVA for power generation and transmission. For each category different implementations have been developed, concerning the type of conductors in the windings, the core’s material and design, and the insulation management for high power transformers.

National and international standards have to be respected and the specifications of the electricity utilities and their contractors must be fulfilled. For power transformers, these conditions are to a large extent determined by the network to which they are connected and specific factors at the installation site. The dimensioning of the power transformer must adhere to the necessary specifications. In this process, mechanical, electromagnetic and thermal characteristics must be taken into account. For every manufactured transformer, a works test is carried out to ensure correct operation and safety under operating conditions spanning several years.

To achieve their targets, such as optimizing structures with respect to electromagnetic performance as well as material usage, or meeting project deadlines, simulation is getting more and more important to engineers, who apply simulation tools in various ways.

Important aspects concerning the efficient and accurate simulation of electromagnetic fields in transformers in the low frequency regime, typically found in power generation and transmission systems, are shown in this presentation. An overview of available simulation techniques in CST STUDIO SUITE® will be given, with particular emphasis on transient simulation, with the aim of extracting important performance parameters, such as losses in structural components, and inrush response as well as forces on coils. Other aspects are core losses in active parts and their thermal rating.


Frank Weiand

Frank Weiand received his engineer degree in electrical engineering from Technical University of Darmstadt in 1995. He has worked as an development engineer for an Automotive Supplier from 1995-2001. He developed and simulated electromechanical devices like movements for dashboards, wheel speed sensors, head-up displays, etc. In 2002 he joined a simulation software distributor as a technical support engineer, focused on electromechanical and multiphysics applications. Since 2008 he is a senior application engineer at CST for LF applications. In CST, he supports customers in applying advanced simulation technologies to improve their product development process. He has more than 20 years of experience in numerical simulation, comprising electromagnetic, mechanical, thermal, and multiphysics applications.


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