CST – Computer Simulation Technology

Integral Equation Solver

CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Integral Equation Solver (MLFMM)

The Integral Equation Solver in CST MICROWAVE STUDIO® (CST MWS) is a specialized solver dedicated to electrically large structures, which are governed by metal. Dielectric, lossy and lossfree materials can also be taken into consideration.

CST MWS's Integral Equation Solver uses a Method of Moments (MoM) discretization with a surface integral formulation of the electric and magnetic field. In order to reduce the numerical complexity, a Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) approach is used. This makes it much more efficient than full volume methods and particularly applicable to full wave simulations of objects in the range from approximately 10 to a couple of hundreds of wavelengths.


Surface currents on a helicopter illuminated by a plane wave at 7GHz (radar cross section calculation)

Typical applications of the CST MWS Integral Equation Solver are antenna placement and radar cross section (RCS) calculation. Both simulation types usually involve electrically large structures that are beyond feasibility for volume methods.

CST MWS Integral Equation Solver (MLFMM) application examples
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