• Which Products are you interested in ?

    CST offers a wide range of EM simulation software to address design challenges across the electromagnetic spectrum, from static and low frequency to microwave and RF, for a range of applications, including EDA & electronics, EMC & EMI and charged particle dynamics.

  • Antenna Magus
  • IdEM
  • FEST3D
  • Optenni Lab
  • Looking for a Training, Workshop or eSeminar ?

    CST STUDIO SUITE® is being demonstrated at trade shows and workshops all over the world. Take a look at the list of conferences and exhibitions CST will be attending and get further information regarding CST workshops, eSeminars and training days.

  • TrainingsRegular training courses are held in CST's offices in Asia, Europe, and North America. Please check our trainings section for detail of trainings in all over the globe. Advance registration is normally required.

  • WorkshopsCST hosts workshops in multiple languages and in countries around the world. Workshops provide an opportunity to learn about specific applications and refresh your skills with experienced CST support staff. Make sure you visit our workshop section.

  • eSeminarsThroughout the year, CST simulation experts present eSeminars on the applications, features and usage of our software. You can also view past eSeminars by searching our archive and filtering for the markets or industries that interest you most.

  • Check our latest Events
  • Why create a MyCST Account ?

    A MyCST account may facilitate your access to many of the offerings on the CST website, for example the registration for eSeminars and the watching of eSeminars recordings, setting email preferences, and there is more functionality to come. It is required to participate in workshops and trainings.

  • Personal PreferencesAllows you to update your email preferences and areas of interest. It helps us to personalize your experience.

  • EventsSearch for events by location, industry and application. Once you are registered, you will be able to manage your registrations and check important details about your events. This section also provides you with a repository for Workshop & Training material.

  • LibraryYou can collect articles you find on the CST website to reference or read later by clicking on the “Add this article” button at the bottom of the article page.

  • Create Your Own Account
  • Need technical Support ?

    Customers can customize their accounts once they have completed the account creation process. This platform acts as vivid interface between CST and our customers.

    We therefore offer access to the latest Service Packs (including an automatic notification that a new Service Pack is available), a steadily growing database of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), Application Notes and Training Videos, as well as an individual FTP section for easy exchange of large files with our support team.

  • Do I need an Account?To access the Support Site a valid maintenance contract and a one-time registration is required.

    Please note that your Support login does not work for the MyCST account.

  • Get Support
  • How to request a Trial License ?

    Get your license in only three steps:

    1. Fill in the required fields in the contact form on the right and click "Send Us Your Request".

    2. Lean back and wait until one of our CST Experts contacts you.

    3. Enjoy a our trial license.

  • Student Edition

    Student Edition The CST STUDIO SUITE® Student Edition has been developed with the aim of introducing you to the world of electromagnetic simulation, making Maxwell’s equations easier to understand than ever. With this edition you have, bar some restrictions, access to our powerful visualization engine and some of the most advanced solvers of CST STUDIO SUITE.

    Student Edition

CST – Computer Simulation Technology

Simulation of a Depressed Collector using CST PARTICLE STUDIO

The depressed collector is part of the beam energy recovery system of the Fusion Free Electron Maser (FEM). It works by collecting the beam and ensuring the suppression of back-streaming secondary electrons. This means that the collector has to be designed in such a way that secondary electrons are accelerated towards the back of the electrodes. To investigate this effect, a particle tracking simulation was perfomed in CST PARTICLE STUDIO® (CST PS). Figure 1 shows the simulated potential and field distribution inside the collector.

Figure 1: Potential distribution (left) and electric field (right) in the collector. Both are simulated with CST PS. The value of the electric field corresponds to the size and color of the arrows. The direction of the arrows indicates the field direction.

As can be seen from the trajectory plot simulated with CST PS (see Figure 2), the incoming electron beam is decelerated by the electric field. Due to the design of the collector, the trajectory of the beam ends on the rear side of the electrodes. The primary particles hitting the electrodes generate secondary electrons. However, these secondary electrons fall back to their origin and do not stream back....

Figure 2: Beam trajectory simulated with CST PS

The secondary electron emission as implemented in CST PS is a fully probabilistic effect using the Furman model [1]. The self-consistent model incorporates the emission of secondary electrons depending on the kinetic energy and incident angle of the primary electrons. It can be easily included in the simulation by editing the properties of the emissive material.

Figure 3: Beam trajectories for 4 different initial energies simulated with CST PS

The depressed collector has been studied for four different initial beam energies. Figure 3 shows the results of the CST PS simulations, reproduced with permission of M. J. de Loos, S. B. van der Geer, Pulsar Physics (see also [2]). The results agree very well with the GPT results shown in Figure 4. The graphics illustrate the functionality of the collector very clearly. The higher the initial energy, the deeper penetrates the beam into the collector, with later stages used to capture higher energy electrons.

Figure 4: GPT results of the beam trajectories [2]


[1] M. A. Furman and M. T. F. Pivi, "Probabilistic model for the simulation of secondary electron emission", Physical Review Special Topics, Accelerators and Beams, Volume 5, 2002.

[2] M. J. de Loos, S. B. van der Geer Pulsar Physics, Nuclear Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res., Vol. 139, 1997.

Rate this Article

0 of 5 Stars
5 Stars
4 Stars
3 Stars
2 Stars
1 Stars
contact support

Your session has expired. Redirecting you to the login page...

We use cookie to operate this website, improve its usability, personalize your experience, and track visits. By continuing to use this site, you are consenting to use of cookies. You have the possibility to manage the parameters and choose whether to accept certain cookies while on the site. For more information, please read our updated privacy policy

Cookie Management

When you browse our website, cookies are enabled by default and data may be read or stored locally on your device. You can set your preferences below:

Functional cookies

These cookies enable additional functionality like saving preferences, allowing social interactions and analyzing usage for site optimization.

Advertising cookies

These cookies enable us and third parties to serve ads that are relevant to your interests.