Stripline models can be used to determine the impact of copper surface roughness on transmission properties.
In high speed digital interconnects, signal attenuation is a result of both dielectric losses and conductor losses. Many articles have shown in detail the characterization and modeling efforts related to the impact of dielectric loss in PCBs and the differences between various dielectric materials. Nevertheless, high-speed characterization modeling efforts do not often take into account the variations in conductor losses due to copper foil roughness or treatments made to the copper foil to promote adhesion.
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