|Image of the Stepped microstrip transition.|
Two arbitrary real impedances may be matched at a specified frequency by using a quarter-wave transformer, which may be extended to multiple sections for broader bandwidth applications. The multi-section transformer consists of equal length transmission line sections. Two examples of multi-section stepped transformers are outlined here, namely, multi-section quarter-wave designs, as well as sampled continuous designs.
The types of tapers implemented here are Binomial and Chebyshev (multi-section quarter-wave), and Klopfenstein (sampled continuous).
In the more common version of this transition, the center conductor of the coaxial feed is extended into the waveguide as a probe. An advanced option, employed in this implementation, uses a shaped probe to improve the bandwidth of the structure.