PICAs are planar antennas with a semi-elliptical base and an inverted top installed above a ground plane. These antennas provide ultra-wideband (UWB) performance with radiation patterns similar to other monopole disc antennas.
The antenna consists of a semi-elliptical base with a modified inverted cone top installed above a ground plane. By tapering the straight line of the standard inverted cone using a spline fit through a number of defined points, a tear-shaped PICA is formed. While the teardrop shape does improve the performance marginally, it may not trump the increased manufacturing effort.Typical reflection coefficient.
The bandwidth of the structure is limited by the radiation pattern performance, since the azimuth radiation pattern does not remain omnidirectional at all frequencies. This performance problem may be addressed by improving the structural asymmetry, e.g. by adding a second orthogonal radiating plate....Total gain: fmin, 3.5fmin and 7fmin.